The Auckland Transport Parking Strategy has now been released, find out what we've got planned for parking in Auckland. Feedback on the Auckland Parking Discussion document informed the development of the AT parking strategy.
Consultation status: Closed
Start date: 28 May 2014
Closing date: 31 July 2014
Starting the discussion
The feedback summary from the consultation has now been released and three parking policies have been developed as a result.
- Read the feedback summary for the parking discussion document.
- View the parking policies that have been developed as a result of the parking strategy.
As Auckland grows it's an increasing challenge to balance the competing demands on the road network. Parking is vital to the safe and efficient operation of that network, it also supports the economic development of centres and has a major impact on the use of public transport.
Demand for parking spaces in some areas of Auckland is outstripping supply and contributes to congestion on our roads. A solution is to have a consistent approach to the supply and management of parking across Auckland, and also get more people using public transport.
We're trying to balance the needs and priorities of all Auckland road users. Parking is just one piece of the integrated transport jigsaw, and one tool to make the transport network more efficient with a consistent approach. It's also important to make the most of the parking space we already have, rather than always creating more, as parking is only one competing demand for valuable space in our town centres.
There's more work to do on many of the recommended approaches outlined in the Draft AT Parking Discussion Document (PDF 2.26MB) as we look to fine tune the best approach for the region as a whole, and specific local areas within it.
Draft AT Parking Discussion
The supply, management and pricing of parking directly impacts on the achievement of transport and land use outcomes. Good parking management is vital for the safe and efficient operation of the road network, supporting the economic development of Auckland’s City Centre, town and business centres as well as increased public transport use. The projected growth in population, employment and economic activity in Auckland will increase competing demands on the road network, including parking.
This Discussion Document outlines the key issues relating to parking in Auckland and seeks feedback on the suggested approaches to address them. It takes into consideration current and emerging problems and trends influencing the provision and management of: on-street and off-street parking in Auckland’s City Centre and other business centres; parking on arterial, local roads and residential streets; and park and ride facilities to support public transport and meet demand.
The approaches suggested in this document are intended to provide the overarching framework to guide customised responses to parking supply and management that reflect local characteristics. Feedback on the Discussion Document will assist the development of a Parking Strategy, which will be included in the next Integrated Transport Programme, due for completion in mid-2015.
The key issues identified in relation to parking across Auckland have been grouped into the following areas:
- Managing demand for parking in the City Centre, metropolitan and town centres
- Competing demands for parking in residential streets
- Managing off-street parking facilities
- Inconsistent on-street parking restrictions across Auckland
- The conflict between parking on arterial roads and improving public transport provision
- Managing the demand for parking permits amongst competing users
- Addressing the shortage of park and ride facilities to support public transport patronage.
Existing parking policies reflect the objectives from legacy councils and the Auckland Regional Council and require rationalisation and reassessment. A proposed parking strategy for Auckland is necessary to reflect the intent and outcomes of the Auckland Plan, proposed Unitary Plan and the Regional Public Transport Plan and to provide an integrated approach.
Most vehicular journeys involve parking at both the start and end of each trip. The availability and cost of car parking can influence decisions on the transport mode used, the time and potentially, the choice of destination.
This Discussion Document:
- Addresses AT’s role in relation to the supply and management of parking.
- Explains AT’s wider objectives and how these relate to parking.
- Outlines the key parking issues and trends in Auckland.
- Suggests approaches for addressing parking problems.
Parking (including park and ride) can be categorised as:
- On-street: in centres, along arterials and in residential areas. On-street parking may be unrestricted, subject to time limits, subject to permits or priced. Parking is sometimes not allowed on certain streets to assist with traffic flow or safety, public transport or cycling priority, or to give more space for pedestrians.
- Off-street: in surface car parking facilities and in multi-storey car parking buildings. Surface car parking may be unrestricted, subject to time limits or priced. Parking in buildings is usually priced.
There are two main parking regimes:
- Long-stay commuter parking provides parking for the working day. Commuter parking travel generally occurs during morning and evening peak periods.
- Short-stay parking involves the provision of parking for shorter duration activities such as shopping, entertainment, personal or business visits. Short stay parking travel generally occurs outside peak periods.
Parking management measures in Auckland include:
- Unrestricted on-street and off-street parking where there are no limitations on time or pricing.
- Time restricted parking with a range of time limitations in place and enforcement is used to ensure compliance.
- Reserved parking for certain types of users such as taxis or mobility impaired.
- Priced parking with varying rates applied across the city.
- Priced off-street parking where rates are applied for differing products such as early bird schemes, leased car spaces, short stay and long stay.
- Permits that are granted to a range of users including emergency and essential services, residents, community and social groups and contractors – often a legacy from previous council practices.
International and local experience suggests that prices, rather than time-limits, are more effective at managing the demand for parking. The use of prices without time limits is also simpler and more convenient for users. When people are able to pay for the time they require, evidence shows that there will be a reduced likelihood of infringements and costs associated with enforcemets.
This discussion document is set out as follows:
- Section 2 proposes objectives to guide the future parking strategy.
- Section 3 summarises the key directions for parking outlined in the Auckland Plan, proposed Unitary Plan and the Regional Public Transport Plan.
- Section 4 identifies the issues and trends which are emerging in the City Centre, residential streets, metropolitan and town centres and in relation to the provision of park and ride facilities.
- Section 5 seeks feedback on suggested approaches to address the issues and trends.
2. Objectives for managing parking
The following objectives for managing parking in Auckland align with the Auckland Plan:
- Facilitate a transformational shift to public transport.
- Support the economic development of the Auckland City Centre, metropolitan and town centres.
- Prioritise the safe and efficient movement of people, services and goods on the road network.
- Provide an outstanding customer experience at AT operated on- and off-street facilities.
- Support place-making, amenity and good urban design outcomes.
- Ensure the efficient use of land in centres.
- Ensure a fiscally responsible approach to providing, managing and pricing parking facilities and that benefits cover costs.
3. Direction for parking in Auckland
The strategic direction for this Discussion Document is set out in the Auckland Plan (AP), the proposed Auckland Unitary Plan (PAUP) and Regional Public Transport Plan (RPTP).
The Auckland Plan sets out the 30-year spatial framework for the growth and development of Auckland to become the world’s most liveable city. Over that period Auckland is expected to grow by around 1 million people. The Plan sets a number of targets that Auckland Council wants to achieve, including increased public transport mode share, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, improved accessibility, lower congestion for public transport, and improved road safety. Under the Plan parking supply and pricing should:
- facilitate safe and efficient access to land use activities;
- reduce car travel to contribute to reduced energy consumption and climate change mitigation • support development and economic activity in growth centres;
- reduce dependence on car travel;
- support the transformation of the public transport system, and
- enhance walkability especially in metropolitan and town centres by careful consideration of the location, design and management of parking facilities.
The proposed Auckland Unitary Plan (PAUP) is Auckland Council’s main regulatory instrument to deliver the Auckland Plan priorities. Once operative (expected by 2016) , the PAUP will provide the planning rulebook for managing and developing land use.
The PAUP controls off-street parking provision relating to new development as well as for standalone car parking facilities. It seeks to:
- Extend the use of maximum parking controls in the City Centre and other key centres, allowing a developer to provide parking on-site up to a maximum limit. These provisions are expected to constrain the supply of parking associated with new developments, encourage better use of valuable land in town centres, reduce development costs, and support the use of public transport.
- Provide for parking not associated with a specific development (non-accessory parking) as a discretionary activity. This means that any new additional parking buildings will be subject to Council approval with more stringent assessment criteria and conditions.
- Provide for park and ride facilities as a restricted discretionary activity meaning that resource consent will be required for the activity (unless the site is designated) and assessed based on a limited set of considerations.
The Regional Public Transport Plan (RPTP): Sets out the public transport services that AT proposes to provide and the public transport policies that will be applied to those services. The RPTP includes policies on the future provision of park and ride facilities to support the public transport network, and includes a set of criteria to guide investment decisions including:
- Extend the public transport customer base and encourage public transport patronage.
- Locate park and ride facilities on sites that have high park and ride demand.
- Focus park and ride on outer areas where public transport services are limited or to serve areas that are beyond the walk-up catchment of the rapid and frequent service network.
- Complete a park and ride implementation programme that clarifies the role of park and ride within the public transport network, and sets clear priorities for future.
4.1 Issues and trends - City centre
The supply of additional parking in the City Centre will be more difficult in future. The PAUP seeks to constrain additional parking supply through the continued application of maximum parking controls for new development. It also looks to introduce additional conditions for developers to meet in relation to the supply of new parking facilities.
While the growth in PT share to the City Centre is forecast to increase significantly, from 31,400 trips in the am peak in 2011 to 68, 100 trips by 2041, the number of car trips to the City Centre is forecast to remain fairly consistent with 2011 levels. Combined with the anticipated constraints in the supply of parking and congestion resulting from an overall increase in motorised trips – the imperative to manage parking in the City Centre is evident.
Peak car trips represent commuters and are generally accommodated in long stay off-street parking within commercial buildings and multi storey publicly accessible car parks.
There are 51,800 parking spaces in the City Centre including off-street / multi-storey parking facilities, commercial parking associated with businesses, private residential parking and on-street parking.
As shown in Table 1 below, AT is responsible for the supply and management of 3,500 on street parking spaces all of which are for short stay to encourage turnover. AT supplies 4,900 off street spaces of which 73% are for long stay.
Figure 1 shows the relative proportion of long stay spaces versus short stay spaces in the City Centre. Long stay spaces comprise 71% of the total, mostly in private control. AT is a minority player in the provision of off-street parking and provides 16% of the total supply. The greatest proportion of parking comprises private parking associated with commercial and residential uses. Provisions in the PAUP will have a direct impact on future supply of this type of parking.
AT is focussed on increasing PT mode share to the City Centre and to shift away from private car use for commuting. There is good public transport to meet commuter peak travel demand into the City Centre, and there is already a trend for increased public transport usage to the City Centre, and mode share has improved from 35% in 2001 to 47.5% in 2013.
Many roads into the City Centre are at capacity in the commuter peak periods and the only way to support the expected growth in travel demand is through more public transport (including walking and cycling). Better public transport access to the City Centre is necessary to boost employment and the economy.
PT trips into the City Centre are forecast to increase in the peak and inter as shown in Table 1.
The forecast patronage increase will be supported by investment in the new frequent bus network, enhanced or new interchanges and extensions to bus lanes.
The City Rail Link is the key transport project within the City Centre and will unlock additional capacity, allow more frequent rail services and improve access for rail passengers. With the introduction of the new frequent bus network, buses will better complement rail in one integrated network. Buses will continue to accommodate significant patronage, requiring enhanced or new interchanges for Britomart, Wynyard and close to the University. In addition, bus lanes on Wellesley, Fanshawe and Customs streets will improve travel time reliability. Ferry services will also provide an important link to the City Centre from coastal suburbs.
Provision of park and ride facilities at key rail, bus and ferry interchanges in the wider Auckland region can increase public transport patronage and offset the loss in parking supply in the City Centre by intercepting commuter trips. Ongoing investment can continue to encourage a shift to public transport by locating sufficient park and ride facilities in the right locations on the PT network.
Park and ride facilities need to demonstrate good urban design principles and be integrated with walking and cycling, kiss and ride locations and encourage mode interchange.
Short stay versus long stay parking
Short stay parking benefits off peak car trips that are focussed on a range of economic activities including shopping, recreation, education, and services. While there is increasing demand for short stay parking in the City Centre, there is a disproportionate supply of long stay parking compared to short stay.
Pricing of parking
Pricing policy can significantly influence the demand for parking. Most onstreet parking in the City Centre has been priced for a number of years. In 2012, the AT Board adopted the Auckland Transport Price Adjustment Policy: On Street Policy, (Appendix 1) which changed the operation of all on-street parking in the City Centre. Included in the changes were the removal of time limits and adoption of demand responsive pricing. Demand responsive pricing means that parking prices will be adjusted up or down to achieve an optimum level of availability.
AT is currently charging less than commercial operators for long stay parking - $13 early bird versus $14 on average. Early bird parking encourages commuter trips and generally applies prior to 8:30am in AT car parks and 9:30am in commercial operated car parks. AT can influence a shift commuter demand away from the morning peak by reducing the amount of long stay parking, increasing prices to achieve parity with commercial operators, changing the conditions for early bird parking and moving toward more short stay parking.
Management of kerbside space
Increasing intensity of activity in the City Centre leads to greater competing demands for kerbside space, including taxis, public transport drop off and pick-ups, emergency vehicles, commercial / service activities, couriers, cyclists and motorcycles. Unmanaged use of kerbside space can interrupt the free flow of traffic (including buses) as well as pedestrian and cyclists’ movements. A hierarchy of users for kerbside space needs to be established and enforced to manage these competing demands and reduce conflicts.
Parking enforcement is also critical to ensure compliance with on-street parking restrictions and parking availability. Enforcement is also required on clearways, bus lanes and transit lanes to keep roads flowing freely and improve public transport reliability.
The purpose of a permit is to exempt the permit holder from a time restriction, not avoid payment for parking. Parking permits are being used in the City Centre by a variety of users for non-essential work and where priced alternatives are available. The use of parking permits for non-essential services limits the available supply of on-street parking.
AT currently issues low priced “essential services” permits to service providers (e.g. plumbers, builders) to park on street. AT currently charges $105 for a three month “essential services” permit. The price to park in the core of the City Centre for the same period if paying at a parking machine is $3,640. Legislation prevents local bodies charging more than an administration cost for a permit. The low cost encourages some service providers to freely park on inner City Centre streets thus limiting parking for visitors to the City Centre.
In addition to the pricing regimes currently in place in Auckland, parking levies have been suggested as an option for managing travel demand and raising revenue. Parking levies have been used in cities similar to Auckland primarily as a travel demand management measure that also enables some revenue to be collected and used for funding transport improvements. For example, Perth applies a parking levy to all public and private parking buildings in the City Centre to generate revenue to enable free public transport travel within the City Centre. New Zealand currently does not tax employer-provided parking so price increases will not impact on employees that benefit from this type of parking. Further investigation into parking levies is required to determine if parking levies, primarily aimed at managing demand and encouraging mode shift, may be applied in Auckland’s City Centre.
4.2 Issues and trends - City centre fringe
There are increasing conflicts and competing demands for available on-street car parking spaces between residents, visitors and commuters on residential streets at the fringe of the City Centre and in some metropolitan centres. The commercial areas around the fringes also experience high parking demand, which is likely to continue as commercial development intensifies. Many of these developments will have low levels of visitor parking. A variety of different parking restrictions have been used in these areas with varying levels of success.
The trend of commuters parking in residential streets around the City Centre is reducing the availability of space for shoppers, visitors and residents. This causes parking conflicts in some streets, particularly in older areas where many properties do not have off-street parking. AT receives many complaints regarding commuter parking particularly from residents living in older suburbs surrounding the City Centre.
Residential parking schemes have been introduced in some parts of the city fringe areas to address commuter parking. Under these schemes, time restrictions (usually two hour) are introduced to control commuter parking and residents are issued permits to allow them an exemption from the time restriction. However, applying these schemes on a street by street basis has often just encouraged commuters to park in adjoining streets.
In July 2012, AT implemented a trial ‘residential parking zone’ in St Marys Bay to address concerns about commuter parking. The trial involves applying a blanket two hour time restriction over a defined area, where residents within the area are able to purchase permits that provide an exemption from the time restriction. The trial has been successful in reducing the impact of commuter parking on residents, but there have been concerns from local businesses about a loss of staff parking opportunities in local streets.
A number of requests have been received for the extension of the schemes to other areas in the city fringe. However, AT wants to develop an agreed approach first to ensure public input on the solution and ensure consistency on how it could be implemented.
In some older residential areas such as Parnell, there are dedicated on-street parking spaces for residents living in dwellings without off-street parking. This reduces the availability of parking for other users and is not considered an efficient use of parking spaces in the longer term.
4.3 Metropolitan centres and town centres
Increased growth in employment and households within metropolitan and local centres will increase travel demand on the surrounding road network. Over the period 2011 to 2041, travel demand to metropolitan centres is projected to increase significantly. Growth in trips to metropolitan and town centres is shown in Table 3 below. Large increases car trips are projected in both the peak and interpeak periods. Between 2011 and 2021 an additional 15,600 car trips are projected in peak period. Between 2011 and 2041 an additional 46,300 trips are forecast. PT trips are also forecast to grow by 5,600 trips in 2021 and 15,300 trips in 2041.
The strong growth in travel to metropolitan and town centres will be only partially accommodated by public transport. There will also be a significant growth in car trips to metropolitan and town centres even with public transport improvements. Provision will need to be made for growing numbers of vehicle trips, particularly for visitors requiring short stay parking and, to a lesser extent, for commuters.
Within most town centres, an aggressive policy of restricting parking could be counter-productive to centre growth until the public transport system is sufficiently developed to accommodate a greater number of trips. As centres intensify in the long term, surface parking facilities located on high value land may not represent the highest and best use for land.
Residential streets in close proximity to larger town centres also experience problems similar to the City Centre. However, the impact on residents is often less as most residential properties have off-street parking. In these situations, AT proposes to install some two-hour time restrictions to a small portion of a street to deter commuter parking and improve parking availability for visitors.
A more frequent bus service network, which will increase public transport patronage to metropolitan centres, will be rolled out by AT over the next three years. The new Frequent Transit Network (FTN) will improve efficiency and reliability of the public transport network. Park and ride facilities located at key public transport interchanges will also encourage patronage, especially for metropolitan centres served by the rail network and Northern Busway.
Across Auckland, AT supplies and manages surface car parks in metropolitan and town centres as shown in Table 2 below. Currently, the management of off-street and on-street parking is inconsistent across metropolitan centres reflecting differing pricing and management regimes as a consequence of previous legacy council practices. These regimes include unrestricted parking, time restrictions and priced parking. Inconsistent approaches create uncertainty and do not reflect the best management practice for car parking.
There are also a number of private off-street parking facilities in metropolitan centres associated with retail, sporting and recreation and religious uses, which have low occupancy rates. There are opportunities to work with private sector providers to maximise the use of off-street parking and to reduce onstreet parking especially on main streets.
4.4 Parking on arterial roads
On-street parking on arterial and local roads serving metropolitan and town centres can impede traffic flow and limit opportunities for lanes to be used for public transport and the movement of people, goods and services. While clearways exist on arterial roads between centres the growth in trip demand for public transport, provision for cycling and walking and improved urban amenity is increasing the pressure for kerbside space currently used for car parking.
Arterial roads and public transport
The arterial road network is vital for the movement of people, services and goods. It comprises around 30% of the length of the road network but moves 60% of all bus-based public transport trips, 40% of vehicle trips and 35% of all goods trips.
The projected increase in Auckland’s population by approximately one million people over the next 30 years will increase travel demand on arterial roads by all modes, resulting in higher levels of congestion both in peak and off peak periods.
The FTN bus corridors run on most arterial routes and will provide for at least a 15 minute or higher frequency, from 7am to 7pm, 7 days a week. AT is also currently planning the roll-out of the double decker buses on selected arterials on the FTN network. Provision of double decker buses will require the extension of existing clearways and the phasing out of on-street parking on some arterials between metropolitan and town centres.
On-street parking and loading will increasingly inhibit the frequency and reliability of buses on these routes. On-street parking can significantly reduce corridor capacity for buses and result in increased congestion.
On-road cycle lanes and associated facilities (such as advance cycle stops) on arterial roads provide important links to the off-road cycle network, to town centres, public transport interchanges, residential areas and schools.
The level of vehicle congestion and on-street parking on arterial roads can be a barrier to cycling by reducing the capacity for implementing cycle lanes and increasing the safety risks.
4.5 Park and ride facilities
Auckland is characterised by high car dependency, historically low provision of park and ride facilities, and relatively low uptake of public transport per capita. Taken together, these factors are barriers to achieving rapid growth of public transport use. International and local experience shows that well located park and ride facilities (such as the Albany park and ride) increase public transport use.
Recent surveys of customers using existing park and ride show that most facilities are used in the morning peak and fill up quickly. For example, Constellation park and ride is full between 7:15 am and 7:30 am each working day. Most park and rides are used for single trip purposes. Managers and professionals are significant users of park and rides in the morning peak, with mostly tertiary students in the inter-peak. Auckland has 5,300 existing park and ride spaces as indicated in Figure 2 (below).
In addition to formal park and ride facilities, many public transport users “hide and ride” by parking in residential streets adjacent to frequent public transport services. A survey of users of the Northern Busway in June 2013 counted 550 “hide and ride” car users parking on surrounding residential streets at different busway stations.
Table 5 below compares rail park-and-ride provision in Auckland with comparative cities. It shows the relatively low provision of park and ride spaces in Auckland.
Figure 3 below also indicates that Auckland is currently low in the provision of public transport trips per capita as well as park and ride provision per capita compared to a selection of southern and northern hemisphere cities.
It is estimated that Auckland may require up to an additional 10,000 spaces by 2041 to bring its park and ride capacity into line with comparative cities (Wellington, Brisbane and Perth). The greatest benefit from park and ride provision occurs from more peripheral areas where access to rapid transit by feeder bus, walking or cycling is less viable.
Once the public transport system is sufficiently mature, supported by good walking and cycling links, there is potential to transition park and ride to other users, such as transit orientatd development.
This section outlines suggested approaches for dealing with Auckland’s parking challenges. Feedback is sought on whether these approaches are appropriate in responding to parking issues and problems.
5.1a Managing demand for parking in the city centre, metropolitan and town centres
As Auckland grows, the demand for the limited supply of on-street space will intensify. It is important that this demand is managed to ensure customers can access parking and to avoid congestion. This is especially the case in centres, where pressure for on-street space will be most acute.
Internationally, 85% peak parking occupancy is the accepted benchmark that provides the ideal balance between use and availability. It means that the parking is well used but some spaces are still available (one in seven spaces should be vacant) so that vehicles do not cruise the streets looking for parking, thereby adding to congestion. Time limits will be sufficient in some areas to achieve this level of occupancy. However in busier areas priced parking will be more appropriate.
Prices make people consider their use of parking and encourages turnover. The use of prices without time limits is also more convenient for users as it gives customers the choice to park for as long as they need. Since people are able to pay for the time they require evidence shows that there will be a reduced likelihood of infringements.
In 2012, AT completed a review of parking in the city centre and found that the time restrictions were not aligned to the amount of time customers actually wanted to park. The on-street parking was also at capacity for much of the day which resulted in frustrated customers and increased traffic congestion. The review led to the implementation of a new on-street parking management system for the Auckland city centre called the City Centre Parking Zone (CCPZ). The changes implemented under this project were:
- Removal of time limits for on-street parking.
- Introduction of demand responsive pricing to manage demand.
- Introduction of a 10 minutes grace period so no payment is needed for short stops.
- Reduction of hourly rates in City Centre car park buildings to encourage people to park off-street.
These changes have been very successful and have been well received by the public and business associations.
What do you think of this approach?
- Adopt a target peak occupancy rate of 85% for on-street parking. When peak parking occupancy (the average of the four highest hours in a day) is regularly above 85%, AT will recommend the introduction of paid parking to better manage the parking and ensure spaces are available.
- Adopt the Auckland Transport Price Adjustment Policies region wide for on-street parking and AT car park buildings in Appendix 1. This will ensure consistent and transparent parking management across the city. AT’s approach to demand-responsive pricing is set out in these policies.
- Adopt the on-street parking intervention trigger points and policy set out in the table 6 (below).
- Parking is available for people when they need it.
- Customer choice in length of stay.
- Reduced chance of receiving an infringement ticket.
- Reduced congestion for public transport and other drivers caused by people cruising for parking.
5.1b Consistent approach to managing parking in centres
The current approach to parking management varies between different metropolitan centres, reflecting variations in demand and supply, and the different policies of previous legacy councils. AT intends to take a more consistent approach to dealing with parking in metropolitan centres in future, while retaining flexibility to deal with different circumstances and dynamics of each centre.
To ensure a consistent approach is taken to parking management in each centre or area, AT will develop a series of Comprehensive Parking Management Plans (CPMPs). CPMPs will include a detailed analysis of the current and future parking problems, an inventory of parking supply (including private off-street parking), current and likely future demand, and the effectiveness of current management arrangements. CPMPs will provide an implementation plan for the provision, management and pricing of parking in each centre/area. The recommendations of the CPMP’s will vary depending on the size of the centre. In smaller centres the CPMP may only consist of a review of the parking restrictions and recommendations for improvement.
What do you think of this approach?
Develop parking management plans for the city centre, metropolitan and town centres according to the programme identified in Table 7 below.
A consistent approach to managing parking in the city centre, metropolitan and town centres • Future demand for on-street and off-street parking is linked to Auckland Council land use planning and projected travel demand for each centre • The trigger points for managing parking and main policy responses are identified • To inform decisions made on resource consent applications involving non-compliance with parking rules • A programme of implementation actions is proposed for the short, medium and long term.
5.2 Balancing competing demands for parking in residential streets
As Auckland intensifies and grows, managing parking on residential streets will become more important. AT receives many complaints regarding parking in residential streets. Overcrowded parking is particularly an issue in fringe suburbs surrounding the city centre where demand is high. It is also a problem in residential areas located near metropolitan and town centres and high-frequency public transport stations or fare boundaries.
Many older residential streets are very narrow and excessive parking can cause access problems, particularly for emergency services. People sometimes park on the footpath on these narrow streets which impacts the pedestrian amenity of the street.
In July 2012, AT implemented a trial residential parking zone in St Marys Bay to address concerns about commuter parking. This trial has been extended while consultation is carried out on this Discussion Document. The trial parking zone involves blanket two hour time restrictions and the residents are all able to purchase permits that provide an exemption. The trial has been successful in reducing the impact of commuter parking on residents. However there have been concerns from local businesses about reduced space for staff parking.
The recommended approach seeks to provide a more consistent response to this issue.
What do you think of this approach?
- Type of approach
The management approach for addressing overcrowded parking will vary in different areas. The problem is more acute in older suburbs near the city centre as many properties don’t have off-street parking. In these areas a residential parking zone may be suitable. In other areas where most properties have off-street parking some time restrictions on a small section of the street to free up space for visitors may be more appropriate.
- Narrow streets
If a street is less than 6.5 metres in width and there are known access problems AT will complete an assessment of the street. This may result in AT proposing to remove parking on one side of the street. Usually this will be done by applying a No Stopping restriction (broken yellow lines) to alternating sides of the street to assist in slowing vehicles down.
- Residential parking zone
A residential parking zone recognises the residential nature of a street and gives priority to residents and short term visitors. A residential parking zone will have a time restriction that may apply at different times and on different days, depending on the local circumstances. Residents who display a parking permit would be exempt from the time restrictions within the zone. The trigger point for AT recommending a residential parking zone will be if a street regularly exceeds 80% occupancy. That is if an occupancy survey determines that the average of the highest four hours occupancy on any given two days is above 80%.
- Number of residential parking permits
On-street parking is a finite resource and it is impossible to cater for the total demand from all users. Therefore AT will be unable to provide unlimited numbers of permits to all residents. To ensure the long-term sustainability of residential parking zones there will be a cap on the number of parking permits that will be issued within a zone. At the establishment of the zone this number will be set at 60% of the total number of parking spaces in that particular zone. For example, if a residential parking zone area has 500 on-street parking spaces there will be a maximum of 300 permits issued. This number can be revised on a yearly basis based on the actual parking use.
- Allocation of residential parking permits
After establishing the total number of parking permits associated with a residential parking zone, the permits will be allocated in the following order of priority: Properties constructed before 1944 with no off-street parking Properties constructed before 1944 with one off-street parking space Any other residential property Businesses located in residential streets (not including home-based businesses). The total number of permits that a property can apply for is based on the following:
- A detached dwelling with single title constructed before 1944 with no offstreet parking will have a maximum of two permits.
- All other types of properties will have a maximum of one permit.
Permits will only be available to residents that live within a residential parking zone. Each permit will be linked to a vehicle registration. If the resident is not the registered owner of the vehicle they will need to provide written authorisation from the owner.
One-day permits will be available at daily charge for visitors. These permits are for short-term use and will not be linked to a vehicle registration. Tradespeople working on houses in a residential parking zone can use visitor permits or other trades permits which will be available. Tradespeople working on houses in a residential parking zone can use visitor permits or other Trades permits (see Section 5.8) will be available.
- Local businesses
A residential parking zone will free up parking space for customers of local businesses. Local businesses are low on the priority scale for eligibility of parking permits and staff should be encouraged to use public transport or seek off-street parking options.
- Permit fees
Residential parking permits will be charged annually and the fee will not exceed the reasonable costs involved in issuing a permit and administering the scheme. Permit fees will be reviewed annually.
- On-street paid parking
In streets that are adjacent to busy town centres and experience high parking demand, AT may recommend onstreet paid parking. This will provide more effective parking management and ensure that parking is available for residents, businesses and customers of local businesses.
- Reduced impact on residents from commuter parking.
- Less traffic congestion in residential streets.
- Helps protect the amenity of residential suburbs.
- Encourages a shift to public transport.
5.3 Managing off-street parking facilities in the city centre
Peak car trips represent commuters who are generally accommodated in long stay off street parking within commercial buildings and multi storey, publicly accessible car parks.
AT is investing in improvements to public transport, particularly into the City Centre. It is easier and more cost effective to provide public transport at peak periods when people want to travel between work and home. AT will therefore look to reduce and eventually phase out facilities for commuter parking. Price incentives can also be used to discourage driving during peak congestion times.
As the city becomes busier with more events there will be a growing demand for short-term parking for people visiting the City Centre for shopping, business or other activities. AT will prioritise short term casual demand in its car park buildings.
What do you think of this approach?
- AT to prioritise short-term casual parking over all day commuter parking.
- AT to continue to manage parking buildings following the AT Price Adjustment Policy – Parking Buildings in Appendix 2 and https://at.govt.nz/driving-parking/parking-rulesconsultations/parking-rules/. This policy will be applied to all parking buildings operated by AT.
- Commuter parking products will be used to fill additional capacity but as demand for short-term increases commuter parking will be phased out.
- Introduce a “congestion buster” product that offers a discount to vehicles that do not enter or exit the car park during the peak congestion times.
- More parking available for people wanting to visit the city centre for shopping, business or leisure.
- Reduced traffic congestion.
- Encourages customers to travel outside of the peak congestion times.
- Encourages more public transport, walking and cycling trips to the City Centre.
5.4 Investing in off-street parking facilities
AT’s investment in off-street parking may be justified in circumstances where the supply of on-street parking is not sufficient to meet demand despite the use of other management options, including pricing. In larger centres it is expected that off-street parking will be provided by private developers – either in the form of on-site parking or increasingly in the form of commercial nonaccessory parking buildings. Providing a central parking facility that can be shared among all users will result in less overall parking required than if each business provided its own parking.
What do you think of this approach?
- Off-street parking should not be provided to expand the supply of free or low cost parking, especially in locations where the existing parking supply is not already priced at an appropriate level.
- AT investment in off-street parking will be considered where it will fill a gap in demand that is not provided by the private sector.
- Enable the more effective use of the road network by relocating parking activity to off-street locations - specifically where this is required to enable the frequent and reliable operation of public transport services on the FTN.
- Improve safety and amenity outcomes by enabling “shared parking”, consolidating accessory parking activity into a smaller number of well-designed and appropriately located facilities.
- Any new investment in the development or expansion of off-street facilities will be subject to a robust business case that addresses all of the criteria in Table 8.
Additional considerations for off-street parking include:
- The design and operation of all AT parking facilities will ensure customer safety and security are prioritised.
- Where the criteria in Table 8 are not being met, and are unlikely to be met in the future, divestment from AT parking facilities should be considered.
- Revenue generating opportunities that complement off-street parking policies should be undertaken in all off-street facilities to improve the return on capital and enhance the customer experience – for example, car wash and valet services.
- Improved customer experience by providing: o simple, efficient payment mechanisms o clear information on the availability of parking to reduce time spent searching for a space.
- The best use is made of existing parking facilities before investment in new parking facilities.
- Parking facilities encourage public transport, walking and cycling and supports visitor activity in centres.
- Prudent use of rate payers money.
5.5 Prioritising access to on-street parking facilities
As Auckland grows, the demand for the limited supply of on-street space will intensify. It is important that this demand is managed to allocate available parking resources to highest priority users. This is especially the case in the city centre and metropolitan centres, where pressure for on-street space will be most acute. The AT Street Parking/Loading Priority Policy sets out the recommended order of priority for available parking in centres.
What do you think of this approach?
The following prioritisation in Table 9 will guide decision making when AT receives requests to make changes to parking restrictions. It will provide guidance when on-street parking in a town centre is reviewed.
On-street parking will be allocated on the basis of the highest need as per the priority table • AT on-street parking management approach is clearly outlined and transparent, and provides consistency across the region • The public is aware of how AT will apply on-street parking priority
5.6 Managing parking on arterial roads
Consistent journey times are critical to increasing public transport use, particularly on the new FTN bus corridors which operate on many arterial roads. On-street parking and loading on arterials roads will need to be managed carefully to reduce adverse impacts on the frequency and reliability of buses and the provision of road space for cyclists.
When a bus, transit or cycle priority project is proposed along an arterial road, AT will undertake community consultation on it as part of the project development process. Each project will involve an analysis of the function of the specific arterial road, programme for the roll out of the FTN and regional cycle routes, availability of existing on-street car parking spaces and alternative off-street parking capacity on side streets.
AT will also take into consideration the impact of changes to parking on place-making and the economic vitality of centres. The loss of any onstreet parking on arterial roads within affected centres will be assessed as part of relevant project, and will include options to provide alternative parking. This will require community and local business consultation and involvement.
What do you think of this approach?
Develop site specific responses for the removal of parking on arterial roads and provide for alternative parking where on street parking is removed.
Consider removing on-street parking on arterial routes serving the FTN and on-road cycling corridors with proven safety issues or high current or projected use.
Management of on-street parking and loading on the arterial road network will consider the following criteria:
- Where on-street parking activity on arterials leads to a reduced level of service for traffic during peak periods, introduce or extend the use of clearways.
- Where the reduction in level of service is significant, persists well beyond the peak periods or there are proven safety issues, then on-street parking should be prohibited, and consideration given to providing replacement parking at convenient locations for local businesses adjacent to the arterial road. The timing and detail will be determined on a case by case review of each arterial road corridor.
- Where the arterial is also a FTN route and when that route meets the FTN service levels, prohibit all on-street parking and loading and consider providing replacement parking and loading at convenient locations for local businesses adjacent to the arterial road. The timing and detail will be determined on a case by case review of each arterial road corridor.
- Where parking is located along the regional cycle network and when there are proven safety issues or there is a current or projected high cycle use, prohibit all on street parking and consider providing replacement parking at convenient locations for local businesses adjacent to the arterial road. The timing and detail will be determined on a case by case review of each arterial corridor.
AT will work with the public, businesses and key stakeholders on the development of any schemes to vary on-street parking taking into account local characteristics and issues and the impact of parking on place making.
- The frequency and reliability of buses on FTN corridors is significantly improved.
- The higher level of service reliability encourages increased public transport patronage and helps reduce congestion during peak times.
- Improved safety of cyclists on arterial corridors.
- Alternative parking options identified for centres.
5.7 Managing special purpose parking
AT manages on-street parking across the Auckland region and receives numerous requests for changes to parking restrictions. It is not always appropriate to change parking restrictions or meet the customer’s expectations. However without a clear policy it is sometimes difficult to justify decisions.
The previous legacy councils had different approaches to how parking restrictions were applied. AT wants to develop a consistent region-wide policy that explains how the various parking restrictions are applied.
AT runs the traffic management for many events around the Auckland region. AT also approves traffic management plans for privately run events to ensure that the impact from these events is minimised.
What do you think of this approach?
Table 10. will be used in decision making when AT receives requests for changes to parking restrictions. It also provides guidance when on-street parking in a metropolitan or town centre is being reviewed.
In most cases parking will not be provided for free in AT car park buildings for events. The exception of this is the Santa Parade where there are historical arrangements that the public expect. AT will often work with Event promoters to provide ‘included in your ticket’ public transport for events to encourage PT use and minimise the impact on the surrounding road network and communities.
For events around the region, the AT Special Events team will work with the event organiser, Auckland Tourism Events and Economic Development (ATEED), Regional Facilities Auckland, Auckland Council and other key stakeholders to develop a traffic management plan for the event. The loss of parking will be kept to the essential areas, providing a safe pedestrian environment and sufficient public transport facilities. Any loss of parking will be communicated to local stakeholders prior to the event. Safety for those enjoying an event and minimum disruption to the rest of the network is always a priority.
AT on-street parking management approach is clearly outlined and transparent, and provides consistency across the region. • The public is aware of how AT will provide special purpose parking restrictions and manage parking for events.
5.8 Allocation of parking permits
A parking permit provides an exemption from a time restriction to allow the user to carry out essential work or park near their place of residence. AT currently issues many different types of parking permits inherited from previous legacy arrangements. There are currently more than 6000 parking permits issued to over 1000 different permit holders every year.
Parking permits also result in holders parking free of charge in high demand streets such as those in the City centre. This can lead to abuse of parking and makes it difficult to manage parking effectively. AT receives many complaints about contractor vehicles parking on retail streets for much of the day and restricting customer access.
Time limits have been removed from on-street paid parking in the city centre so it is possible for anyone to park for the time they require by paying through the meter. This is a fairer system where everyone pays the same amount for the parking that they use. This will encourage greater turnover and encourage use of off-street parking for longer stays. Additionally a daily coupon could be offered for greater convenience than paying through the meter, although this would be charged at the full daily amount.
There is a need to ensure that parking permits are allocated in a way that is fair, based on need, and eligibility is clearly understood.
What do you think of this approach?
AT is proposing to discontinue many parking permits that were issued under the previous councils. Previously there was not a clear policy on who was eligible for parking permits and consequently there are many permits issued to organisations, such as sports clubs and social groups, which may not be appropriate.
- Contractors and Tradespeople
There will no longer be monthly or annual permits available for use in the City Centre and other paid parking areas. There are no longer time restrictions on most on-street paid parking areas in Auckland and customers may pay through the meter for the time they require. AT is planning to introduce new technology to make it easier for customers to pay for on-street parking. While this technology is being investigated AT can offer daily coupons for use in paid parking areas such as the City Centre to make it more convenient for tradespeople to pay. However these will be charged at the same rate as the parking meter. Many areas of Auckland still have time restrictions and parking permits may be required to allow contractors and tradespeople to park near to their worksite. Therefore AT will offer monthly or annual parking permits to contractors that will only apply in areas of time restricted parking but not paid parking.
- Critical Services
AT will also offer a Critical Services Permit for services like the police, emergency healthcare organisations and emergency infrastructure repairs. This tightly restricted permit will allow the user to park anywhere, including in paid parking areas.
All permits will incur an administration fee. Monthly, six monthly and annual permits will be available.
The proposed new permit categories are shown in Table 11: Permit Categories
- Allows AT to manage on-street parking more effectively and fairly with the use of demand responsive pricing.
- Better parking availability in some areas.
- Allocation of permits seen as fairer by the general public.
5.9a Investment in park and ride facilities
Park and ride facilities located in the right places are highly effective in extending market catchments for public transport. park and ride facilities intercept commuter trips outside the congested parts of the road network that would otherwise have been made by car. Relocating commuter parking away from the city centre to key interchanges on the rapid and frequent transit networks also enables valuable inner-city land to be used for more productive uses rather than parking.
Over time, the application of maximum parking standards in the city centre and metropolitan centers will potentially reduce the supply of parking in these key destinations which are well served by public transport. Analysis indicates that Auckland will require up to an additional 10,000 park and ride spaces by about 2040 to bring its capacity into line with cities such as Perth, Brisbane and Wellington.
An assessment has been undertaken of the number of park and ride spaces that would need to be provided across rail stations, bus interchanges and ferry terminals to deliver up to an additional 10,000 spaces and to meet demand by 2040. The assessment took into consideration the following factors:
- How well the station will be serviced by the Frequent and Rapid Transit Networks.
- Local congestion around the station.
- Congestion upstream of the station.
- Available land for parking at the station.
- The landuse controls of the area surrounding the station.
- Likely public transport fare zones.
- Availability of underutilised private and public parking (e.g. retail shopping centres and sports grounds).
- Mitigating negative impact on public transport while the western ring route is completed.
Demand analysis has indicated where additional park and ride spaces may be required, either as additional bays at existing park and ride stations or new park and ride facilities. The proposed location of additional park and ride spaces is indicated in figure 4 (below).
Further to this assessment, AT is currently undertaking more detailed work based on site by site analysis to develop an implementation programme for the provision of park and ride spaces across the public transport network over the next 5 years. This includes consideration of land availability and ownership, market value, construction and operational costs, consenting issues, and benefit cost ratios and site yields. Importantly high priority will be given to locations that support access to quality public transport where feeder services are limited such as on the urban fringe.
The staging of park and ride development will take into account the timing of the new public transport network, the impact of major road construction projects (e.g. SH 16) on congestion, the location of new urban development and opportunities for commercial development.
In the short to medium term, “temporary” park and ride facilities may be established to promote travel choice to public transport. These “temporary facilities” could be leased for park and ride purposes with minimal investment. Good signage, security and low-cost surfacing treatment may be all that is needed to encourage significant numbers of drivers to park and ride. In the longer term, there is potential for “temporary” park and ride sites to transition to other uses, such as transit oriented development.
While the temporary facilities are being utilised to promote travel choice change, in the longer term permanent facilities can be planned and funded, ideally through joint venture arrangements to ensure AT’s capital is preserved for investments in facilities that cannot be funded by alternative means.
What do you think of this approach?
Consider up to an additional 10,000 park and ride bays by 2040 taking into account the following principles:
- Locate park and ride facilities where they can increase station catchments and contribute to the Rapid and Frequent Transit Networks.
- Avoid locating park and ride facilities in metropolitan and town centres except as part of a stage transition to other uses.
- Develop a programme that will deliver park and ride facilities for inclusion in the Integrated Transport Programme.
To support the park and ride Programme, AT will build or acquire supporting infrastructure and IT systems as required, including:
- Ensure AT HOP card supports charging for park and ride.
- Provide, maintain and renew infrastructure and IT systems at parking and park and ride stations to enable charging.
- Ensure pay and display machines are provided, maintained and renewed as required.
- Provide customer centric guidance and information systems for on and off street parking.
- Reduce pressure for commuter parking in the city centre and metropolitan centres, by relocating commuter parking to the RTN and FTN networks where there is less pressure for alternative uses, and land costs are lower.
- Reduce congestion by intercepting commuter trips encouraging mode shift to public transport for most of the trip.
- Encourages the use of public transport.
5.9b Pricing of park and ride spaces
Park and ride sites in Auckland are free to users which do not reflect the true costs and benefits of using park and ride, and can provide a disincentive to walk, cycle or users of the feeder bus services. Most park and ride facilities are at capacity early in the morning and consequently some customers cannot find parking. Pricing park and ride will allow the demand for parking to be managed, ensuring that customers can always find a park if they are willing to pay.
The RPTP includes an action to introduce charges for park and ride facilities where appropriate, to manage demand and ensure that facilities complement the wider public transport system. park and ride charges must be integrated with public transport fares, using the AT HOP card where practical.
Notwithstanding the above, park and ride provision is an important driver for public transport patronage and the demand for park and ride facilities generally exceeds the capacity provided. Introducing pricing for park and ride too early could have a negative impact on public transport patronage. Pricing park and ride would depend on the price and the availability of alternative car parking spaces, and linked to the roll-out of integrated fares.
What do you think of this approach?
Pricing for park and ride should not be introduced before the following triggers are met:
Feeder services to major park and ride stations are operating frequently.
The integrated fares zonal system is operational.
The AT HOP Card has the ability to be used for park and ride charging.
A full business case for pricing has been undertaken to set out the methodology, costs, the benefits and the impact on PT patronage.
- Park and ride spaces are available for people when they need it.
- Enables cost recovery from currently free park and ride facilities.
- Make the best use of existing park and ride capacity before deciding to invest in additional facilities.
Appendix 1: Auckland Transport Price Adjustment Policy (on-street parking)
Auckland Transport (AT) is committed to delivering convenient affordable parking when and where it is needed. Achieving this will require changes in the way that on-street parking is managed, most notably a shift away from relatively rigid parking restrictions towards a more flexible “demandbased” approach. The new approach will manage parking demand through the use of adjustments to on-street parking prices. The purpose of this document is to describe how AT will manage these price adjustments in the Auckland Region.
The scope of this policy is all paid on-street public parking in the Auckland region. This policy does not cover how off-street parking prices will be set. Nor does it cover how prices will be set for parking permits that may be used in paid parking areas such as special event parking permits or residential parking permits.
Internationally there has been a major shift in the way that on-street parking is managed. As cities around the world become larger and more congested, the limitations of traditional on-street parking management practises are becoming more apparent. Rigid approaches to setting time-limits and hourly prices do not reflect the dynamic urban environments. Consequently current approaches do not ensure that parking is available when and where it is needed.
Instead, strict time limits and fixed hourly prices are being abandoned in favour of more flexible approaches that set prices in response to parking demand. AT proposes to adopt a similar approach for Auckland, where the prices for on-street parking would be set according to the following general principles:
- AT should set prices for on-street parking at levels that ensure people can find a carpark most of the time within a short walking distance of their destination.
- In general, if the demand for parking in an area is found to decrease, then prices should also decrease and vice versa. Parking will be regularly monitored to ensure prices are resulting in an appropriate level of occupancy.
- On-street parking in town centres will be prioritised to support customers and other short-term visitors ahead of long-stay commuters and residents. Prices are more effective than time-limits at prioritising users in this way.
- The way parking prices are set in different parts of Auckland should be transparent and based on up to date empirical evidence of parking demand patterns in that area and observed trends in these patterns over time.
Demand Responsive Pricing
Traditionally time-limits have been used in conjunction with paid parking to encourage parking space turnover. Time limits are effective for encouraging turnover in areas where there is low to medium levels of parking demand but are not effective in busy areas.
Time-limits are inflexible for users and difficult for AT to enforce. They often force people to cut short their visit, or risk receiving a parking ticket. Time limits (particularly P60 and lower) have several negative unintended impacts, namely:
- They discourage high-value customers from supporting local businesses and thereby may potentially undermine retail spending.
- They encourage people to shift their vehicles as a way of circumventing time-limits, which is inconvenient to them and creates congestion.
- When combined with prices, time-limits create a complex and confusing set of rules for people who are trying to use on-street parking.
The intention of this policy is that where on-street parking is priced it will no longer be subject to time limits. Instead, AT will rely on demand responsive pricing (supported by effective enforcement) to achieve satisfactory levels of occupancy and turnover. International and local experience suggests that prices, rather than time-limits, are more effective at managing the demand for parking. The use of prices without time limits is also simpler and more convenient for users. Because people are able to pay for the time they require there will be a reduced likelihood of infringements.
Demand responsive pricing means that the prices charged for on-street parking will be adjusted based on parking demand. Price rates will be adjusted up or down with the goal of maintaining on average 85% occupancy at peak times. An occupancy range of 70-90% is considered acceptable. The target parking occupancy rate is not set at 100% because some parking spaces should be available at all times. An occupancy rate of approximately 85% ensures that parking resources are well-used and people can find a park in reasonable proximity to their destination. Maintaining some availability reduces the need for people to drive around searching for a parking space, thereby reducing congestion.
Price Adjustment Policy
- Price Areas
The paid parking in each town centre will be divided into Price Areas. These areas will be a collection of streets with broadly similar parking demand profiles. The areas may change over time in order to better manage demand. The parking price will be uniform across each Price Area.
- Occupancy Surveys
The parking demand will be reviewed every 3, 6 or 12 months depending on how variable the demand is in each particular Price Area. For example, in areas where demand is reasonably stable, occupancy surveys will normally be carried out every 12 months. In areas where demand varies considerably surveys may be carried out at three month intervals. Prices will only be adjusted if warranted by changes in demand and will not be adjusted more than once every three months. Surveys will measure the onstreet occupancy for the times of the day that paid parking is in operation across at least three different days. AT may also elect to undertake spot surveys at other times to ensure appropriate occupancy levels are being maintained (or at the request of local stakeholders).
- Price Adjustment
Prices may be adjusted either up or down in response to the occupancy surveys undertaken. In each case the goal is to maintain an average of 85% occupancy, as much as practicable. The average occupancy of each Price Area will be determined by the average of the highest four hours each day recorded in the occupancy surveys. Prices will then be set according to the following formula:
- When average occupancy is less than 50% the price will be lowered by up to $1 per hour, with no minimum price.1
- When average occupancy is 50-70%, the price will be lowered by $0.50 per hour.
- When average occupancy is 70-90%, the price will not change.
- When average occupancy is 90-100%, the price will be raised by $0.50 per hour.
- Times of Operation
The standard hours of parking restrictions in New Zealand are 8am to 6pm. However some areas of Auckland experience high parking demand in the evenings. AT will implement additional paid parking restriction hours where necessary to manage demand.
Peak and Off-peak
Some areas experience significantly different parking demand on different days of the week or different times of the day. Where demands differ significantly AT will use peak and off-peak prices. Peak prices will be higher and will normally coincide with typical weekday working hours. Off-peak price will be lower and will usually apply in the weekends and evenings, but may apply at other times depending on demand.
Price increases or decreases made by applying this policy will be notified through the Parking page on the AT website. The business association in the affected town centre and Local Board will also be notified. AT will change the price no less than seven calendar days after notification. Although AT will be clear and transparent when price changes occur, there will be no public consultation each time prices are adjusted in response to changes in parking demand.
- Customer Benefits
The customer benefits expected from the roll-out of demand responsive pricing are:
- Convenience – parking on-street will become more convenient, which in turn enables more people to visit town centres to do business, shop, eat, and a range of other activities.
- Fair – parking prices will be set at the lowest possible rate that delivers an average 85% occupancy at peak times.
- Less hassle – removing time-limits will reduce the hassle often associated with using onstreet parking, and reduce the numbers of parking infringements.
- Accessibility – because on-street parking will become more readily available, fewer people will be driving around searching for a parking space, thereby reducing congestion.
- Roles and Responsibilities
This policy requires regular reviews of the onstreet parking demand to ensure that customer benefits are being realised. Occupancy surveys will be carried out in each Price Area followed by calculations on whether price adjustments are required. For each on-street parking price change there will be a parking resolution document produced that will be approved by the Manager, Parking and Enforcement and signed off by the AT Traffic Control Committee.
The table below describes the roles and responsibilities for each action.
Appendix 2: Auckland Transport Price Adjustment Policy (parking buildings, Auckland city centre)
Auckland Transport (AT) is committed to delivering convenient affordable parking when and where it is needed. The AT parking strategy gives a clear policy direction on how AT’s car park buildings in the CBD should operate. The Strategy shifts focus from long-stay to short stay parking. It also recommends that early bird times and prices should be reviewed to discourage peak commuting and that on-street and off-street prices be better aligned. The purpose of this document is to outline how AT will operationalize the AT Strategy.
The scope of this policy covers the price adjustment policy AT will use in its car park buildings in Auckland’s Central Business District.
- Pricing policies should be consistent with the organisation’s strategic objectives by supporting visitation to the CBD, promoting public transport use, discouraging commuter trips at peak times and reducing congestion.
- Prioritise short stay parking over long stay parking.
- Use a consistent, simple, rules-based, transparent and data-driven approach for setting parking rates.
- Use demand responsive pricing and charge the lowest rates possible to achieve occupancy targets.
- Ensure the peak demand for short-term parking is met most of the time.
- Use discounts to achieve strategic outcomes such as discouraging peak commuting and reducing congestion.
- Use specific parking management measures during special events and short seasonal peaks such as school holidays.
4. Price Adjustment Policy
This policy recognises that transitioning from an approach that focused on the commuter market to one that prioritises short-stay parking is a significant policy change. Rebalancing AT’s car park buildings in favour of short term parking and travel demand management parking products that are consistent with AT’s strategic objectives will be a gradual process. The commuter market tends to consist of repeat customers who are likely to expect consistency in prices and are highly sensitive to price adjustments. Adjusting prices too rapidly is likely to lead to sharp changes in demand and result in unintended consequences that AT may struggle to manage. The approach will be to adjust prices gradually and be transparent about how prices will be set. The objective is to signal intentions early and avoid surprises to customers as much as possible.
- Car Park Buildings
AT manages five car park buildings in the CBD. Each car park experiences different parking demands for different parking products and therefore has a different parking profile. Whilst the specific product mixes, targets and prices set for each car park will vary the price adjustment principles that underpin each approach will be the same.
- Peak and Off-Peak Rates
Some car park buildings experience significantly different parking demand on different days of the week or different times of the day. Where demands differ significantly AT will use peak and off-peak prices. Peak prices will be higher and will normally coincide with typical weekday working hours. Offpeak prices will be lower and will usually apply in the weekends and evenings, but may apply at other times depending on demand. Appendix 2: Auckland Transport Price Adjustment Policy (Parking Buildings, Auckland City Centre)
- Demand Responsive Pricing
The parking prices in car park buildings will change gradually and periodically based on demand. This is consistent with the approach being used to manage on-street parking in the CBD. Occupancy levels will be constantly monitored to ensure peak demand for short-stay parking is met most of the time. If the demand for parking in a car park is found to decrease, the prices will also decrease. Likewise, if the demand for parking in a car park is found to increase, the prices will increase. Demand will be constantly monitored in the car park buildings but prices will not be adjusted more than quarterly and only if warranted by demand. The only exception to this would be reducing prices for promotions during special events such as school holidays. This provides the flexibility required to adapt to fluid market conditions.
- Setting Yield Targets
Each parking product (i.e. concession lease, casual, early bird, etc.) provides a different yield. For example: a typical early bird parker who arrives in the morning will park for around 8 hours and leave around 5pm. If the early bird price is set at $13 the yield from that space during the weekday peak will be $13. On the other hand a single space may be occupied by several casual parkers at different times throughout the peak period. If the casual rate is set at $3 per hour and the space is occupied for a total of 6 hours the yield would be $18.
AT will set yield targets for each parking product. The yield target is the amount of revenue per space that AT aims to achieve for each parking products. The targets will be based on the following approach:
Prices for commuter parking products will be set to return a similar yield across all commuter products. However, commuters that prefer a guaranteed parking space will be required to pay a premium price.
In order to prioritise short-stay parking AT will aim to achieve a lower yield from short stay products than from commuter products.
Parking products that achieve specific travel demand management outcomes, such as car-pooling or off-peak travel, may be discounted in recognition of their contribution to supporting AT’s strategic objectives.
- Hourly, Daily and Monthly Prices
Daily and monthly prices will be set based on a formula in relation to the hourly rates. This allows daily and monthly parking prices to fluctuate based on demand along hourly rates. The exact formulas will depend on the parking profile of each individual car park building but will be based on the same principles.
- Hourly rates:
Hourly rates will be set according to demand.
- Daily prices:
The maximum daily price will be set between 5 and 10 times the hourly rate. Monthly unallocated spaces: The monthly unallocated space price will be set between 18 and 24 times the daily price. This reflects the approximate number of days in a month that a lease holder would use the car park.
- Monthly reserved spaces:
The monthly reserved space price will attract a 30% to 70% premium on the monthly unallocated spaces.
- Travel Demand Management products:
Products which support AT’s strategic objectives (i.e. carpooling, off-peak travel) will receive a discount of between 10% and 50%.
- Simple parking products
The transition to demand responsive pricing offers the opportunity to eliminate some parking products and simplify the customer experience. AT will aim to simplify the range of parking products in its car park buildings.
- Special events and seasonal peaks
AT may use special event pricing and specific parking management measures to deal with the impacts of special events and short seasonal peaks such as school holidays. For example during capping ceremonies additional spaces may be reserved for short stay parkers and existing commuters would be warned beforehand that there would be limited availability and advised to make alternative arrangements.
5. Customer Benefits
The customer benefits expected are:
- Accessibility – Short stay parking will be prioritised making the CBD more accessible for short-stay visitors and support visitation.
- Fair – parking prices will be set at the lowest possible price to ensure the peak demand for short stay parking is met.
- Congestion – providing discounts and price incentives for car-poolers or customers that arrive outside peak times will help alleviate congestion.
6. Roles and responsibilities
AT’s Parking and Enforcement Team will set the parking occupancy levels and yield targets for each parking product. If occupancy levels indicate a price adjustment is required approval will be sought from the Manager, Parking and Enforcement.
There are opportunities for some AT off-street surface car parks to be improved to provide parking instead of on-street parking along arterials and local roads in the vicinity of metropolitan and town centres. Most off-street parking supplied and managed by AT comprise surface facilities.