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Auckland Transport

Parking strategy policies

These policies are part of the Auckland Transport parking strategy. They have been developed to facilitate AT’s management and supply of parking across Auckland.

1. On-street parking management

AT is responsible for the management of most on-street parking across Auckland. Parking is an essential component of Auckland’s transport system as it can have major implications for the convenience, economic viability, design and layout of an area. On-street parking plays an important role in the effective functioning of town centres and access to residential areas. Many businesses rely on on-street parking to provide access for their customers and meet their loading requirements. On-street parking also caters for specific uses such as dedicated space for taxis and mobility parking for people with impaired mobility.

On-street parking management broadly consists of the following:

  • Unrestricted: where there are no limitations on parking.
  • Time restricted: with a range of time limitations and enforcement used to ensure compliance.
  • Reserved parking: reserved for a certain type of user, such as mobility card holders, or taxis or for loading zones.
  • Priced parking: With varying rates applying sometimes alongside a time restriction.

In 2012, AT completed a review of parking in the city centre and found that the time restrictions were not aligned to the amount of time customers actually wanted to park. The on-street parking was also at capacity for much of the day which resulted in frustrated customers and increased traffic congestion. The review led to the implementation of a new on-street parking management system called the City Centre Parking Zone (CCPZ). The changes implemented under this project were:

  • removal of time limits for on-street parking,
  • introduction of demand responsive pricing to manage demand,
  • introduction of a 10 minute grace period so no payment is needed for short stops,
  • reduction of hourly rates in car park buildings to encourage people to park off-street.

These changes have been very successful and have been well received by the public and business association.


Policy 1A: Application of parking restrictions


AT receives numerous requests from businesses, residents and the general public for new, or changes to, parking restrictions. While many requests are justifiable it's not always appropriate to change parking restrictions or meet the customer’s expectations because of competing demands and limited kerb-side space. There are many different parking restrictions that can be used to allocate parking for particular user groups. A consistent region-wide approach that explains how the various parking restrictions are applied is needed.

Table 1 outlines types of parking restrictions that will be used by AT. There is also a description on where and why each restriction is used.

Table 1:  Types of parking restrictions and their policies

RestrictionDescriptionPolicy
Loading zones

Parking areas designated solely for loading or unloading goods or passengers. Includes:

  • General Purpose Loading Zone
  • Goods Vehicles only Loading Zone
  • Loading zones will be provided in convenient locations to serve local business, commercial and retail activities.
  • Goods vehicle loading zones are designated for vehicles of any size, weight and usage that deliver goods in the course of trade.

  • Goods vehicle loading zones should be used in areas of high parking demand and a high density of retail and commercial premises.
  • General purpose loading zones should be used in all other areas where there is a general need for loading or unloading
  • All loading zones will have a time restriction. This is usually five minutes. A user may stay longer than the time restriction if observed to be in the activity of loading or unloading.
  • Loading zones should avoided in angle parking bays to prevent larger vehicles overhanging into the carriage way.
Mobility parking

Parking areas reserved for the exclusive use of vehicles displaying a mobility parking permit. A valid Mobility Parking Permit must be displayed at all times in the vehicle while it is parked in a mobility parking space.

  • Provide mobility parking which is physically accessible, affordable and safe to use.
  • Mobility parking should be provided, where practical, in angled parking as a preference to parallel parking spaces to enhance safety and accessibility.
  • Time restrictions should be applied to mobility parking spaces. P180 is the preferred time restriction for on-street mobility spaces.
  • In general mobility parking will not be provided if there are existing and available mobility parking spaces within 200m of an accessible route to the destination.
  • Mobility parking spaces will only be considered in commercial and mixed use areas. As a general rule mobility parking will not be provided in residential areas.
  • Vehicles displaying a mobility parking permit can remain in time restricted on-street parking spaces for double the posted time. This concession does not apply to areas where the time restriction is longer than P120.
  • In all on-street paid parking areas vehicles displaying a mobility parking permit are given one hour free parking upon payment of the minimum tariff e.g. if a pay and display receipt shows parking is paid until 10:15am, then a mobility card holder can stay until 11:15am.
  • A consistent zero tolerance approach will apply to the illegal use of mobility parking spaces. Offending vehicles will be ticketed and may be towed.
Motorcycle parking On-street parking set aside for exclusive use of motorcycles or motorised scooters.
  • Motorcycle parking will sometimes be provided in on-street space that is not suitable to regular car parking.
  • Long-stay motorcycle parking in the CBD should be encouraged in off-street parking buildings.
  • On-street motorcycle parking may be time restricted or priced to prioritise short-term parking.
  • Pricing may be introduced to manage high demand. The price to park in on-street motorcycle parking spaces will be less than for a car in recognition of the lower impact on congestion and kerbside space.
  • Motorcycles are not allowed to park on the footpath. 
Taxi stands On-street parking reserved for the exclusive use of taxis.
  • Taxi stands are considered where there is high public demand for taxis. Any new taxi stand must be no closer than 400m from an existing taxi stand.
  • The length of taxi stand should reflect the turnover of the space but generally taxi stands should be kept to less than three car lengths.
  • Taxi stands should not be located adjacent to bus stops and loading zones as the taxis will creep into this space. Where possible taxi stands should be located in a separate parking bay where no creep can occur.
  • Night-time taxi stands will be considered in areas where there is high night-time activity. Using loading zones or bus stops at night will also provide a better utilisation of on-street parking.
  • In general taxi stands will not be considered in residential streets.
Buses and tour coach parking

On-street parking dedicated for waiting and lay-over of buses and tour coaches. The following different categories apply:

  • Public transport short-term positioning layover space.
  • Public transport longer-term parking.
  • Coach parking.
  • Longer-term (greater than two hours) bus parking should be located on the edge of the CBD or town centre away from active street frontages.
  • The positioning layup needs to be located closer to where buses start their route. However the location of layover should try and avoid busy pedestrian areas.
  • Coach parking will be considered in locations of key tourist interest where a significant demand can be identified.
  • Longer term coach parking will be located at the edge of the city centre or town centre away from active street frontages.
  • Time restrictions will be applied on coach parking areas, particularly in the city centre and metropolitan centres.
Car share parking On-street parking reserved for car share operator’s vehicles.
  • Car share organisations must have membership available to all local residents and businesses, and 24-hour booking systems.
  • AT will support approved car share organisations by providing dedicated on-street parking spaces.
  • AT reserves the right to charge for the establishment and on-going provision of on-street car share parking spaces.
  • Car share organisations may be required to regularly report back to AT on the uptake and membership in each area car share parking spaces are installed.
Carpool parking On-street parking reserved for vehicles carrying two or more occupants. This is sometimes referred to as High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) parking.
  • Carpool parking is often provided in Park and Ride car parks or on-street parking adjacent to high-frequency public transport stations to encourage carpooling and obtain greater benefit from the parking space.
  • Carpool parking should be provided at convenient locations to further encourage carpooling.
  • Vehicles must be carrying two or more occupants when parking to comply with the carpool restriction. The vehicle may have one occupant when exiting the parking space. 
Time restrictions General parking space whereby a maximum permitted time is posted. Parking time restrictions are used to encourage turnover in areas that experience high parking demand.
  • There should be some consistency with the time restrictions used around Auckland to allow for greater legibility.
  • The following time restrictions should be used: P5, P15, P30, P60, P120, P180.
  • The following time restrictions should be avoided as they are difficult to enforce or may be confusing to the public: P2, P10, P20, P90
  • P30 or P60 are recommended for shopping high streets where paid parking is not suitable.
  • Longer time restrictions such as P120 or P180 are suitable for the fringes of a town centre.
  • Time restriction above three hours should be avoided as they are difficult to enforce.
Bicycle parking Space reserved for bicycles provided on the footpath or within an on-street parking space.
  • Bicycle parking in place of car parking can provide a vastly more efficient use of the parking resource. Typically 10 bicycles can be parked in a standard car space.
  • Bike parking infrastructure will be prioritised in town centres and in locations that support public transport use such as transport interchanges, rail stations and near the Frequent Transport Network routes
  • On-street bicycle parking will be designed in line with the Auckland Transport Code of Practice (ATCOP).

 


Policy 1B: Parking Intervention Triggers


There are different parking controls that can be used to manage on-street parking. It's important that decisions to change controls are based on policy principles and empirical data. It's also useful for the public to understand how decisions to amend parking controls are made.

The Parking Intervention Trigger Table below provides the trigger points where a new parking management control will be recommended to manage an increase in demand for parking.

Areas which experience low demand, or no change in demand, and don’t reach the trigger points, will not require any change.

Where parking demand is high, AT will apply various parking restrictions to achieve a target peak occupancy rate (the average of the four highest hours in a day) of 85% for on-street parking. This means that the parking resource is well used but people can still easily find a space, thus reducing customer frustration. In other words, one parking space in every seven should be vacant. When peak parking occupancy is regularly above 85%, AT will recommend a change to the parking management approach. This is a recognised international approach to the management of on-street parking.

Table 2: On-street Parking Intervention Triggers

IssueTrigger pointResponse
Demand pressure in currently unrestricted areas Demand for on-street parking regularly exceeds 85% at peak times.
  • Introduce time restrictions suitable to local demand or paid parking to encourage turnover of spaces, or
  • Establish new residential parking schemes.
Demand pressure in residential areas Parking demand regularly exceeds 85% of available supply in residential areas at peak times where off street parking options are constrained (e.g. heritage zones, or areas where off-street parking constraints apply).
  • Introduce or alter time restrictions (suited to local demand) to encourage turnover of spaces (with resident parking permit schemes where appropriate), or
  • Establish new residential parking schemes, or
  • Introduce paid parking areas to manage the high demand.
Demand pressure in areas with time restrictions  Occupancy levels for time-restricted spaces regularly exceed 85% at peak times.
  • Investigate opportunities to reduce the time restriction and/or introduce additional time restrictions on adjacent streets, or
  • Introduce paid parking with no time limits and use demand responsive pricing.
Demand pressure in areas with paid parking  Occupancy rates for paid parking on-street spaces regularly exceed 85% at peak times. 
  • Increase parking charges, in line with Policy IC,
  • Consider provision of additional off-street paid parking consistent with the investment criteria.

 


Policy 1C: Demand responsive priced parking


When parking demand reaches a point where time restrictions are not being effective, AT will recommend priced parking. Time restrictions, for example P60, work well in encouraging turnover where there is low to medium parking demand. As demand increases and the parking becomes full the only option to create parking availability is to reduce the time limit. However, a reduced time restriction can have negative consequences as the time a customer can spend in the centre is reduced and there is a greater chance of receiving an infringement. Time restrictions are often misused by people taking advantage of free parking and moving their cars to avoid enforcement.

Paid parking can improve the availability of parking and provides greater flexibility in length of stay for the customer. 

Demand responsive pricing means that the prices charged for on-street parking will be adjusted based on parking demand. Price rates will be adjusted up or down with the goal of maintaining on average 85% occupancy at peak times. An occupancy range of 70-90% is considered an acceptable range. The target parking occupancy rate is not set at 100% because some parking spaces should be available at all times.

An occupancy rate of approximately 85% ensures that parking resources are well-used and people can find a park in reasonable proximity to their destination. Maintaining some availability reduces the need for people to drive around searching for a parking space, thereby reducing congestion.

On-street demand responsive pricing

AT recommends the introduction of priced parking with no time limits in areas with high parking demand and a low availability of spaces. Prices for on-street parking will be set according to the following general principles:

  • Prices for on-street parking will be set at levels that ensure people can find a car park most of the time within a short walking distance of their destination.
  • In general, if the demand for parking in an area is found to decrease, then prices should also decrease and vice versa. Parking will be regularly monitored to ensure prices are resulting in an appropriate level of occupancy.
  • On-street parking in town centres will be prioritised to support customers and other short-term visitors ahead of long-stay commuters and residents. Prices are more effective than time-limits at prioritising users in this way.
  • The way parking prices are set in different parts of Auckland should be transparent and based on up-to-date empirical evidence of parking demand patterns in that area and observed trends in these patterns over time.

Price areas

The paid parking in each town centre will be divided into price areas. These areas will be a collection of streets with broadly similar parking demand profiles. The areas may change over time in order to better manage demand. The parking price will be uniform across each price area.

Occupancy surveys

The parking demand will be reviewed every three, six or 12 months depending on how variable the demand is in each particular price area. For example, in areas where demand is reasonably stable, occupancy surveys will normally be carried out every 12 months. In areas where demand varies considerably surveys may be carried out at more regular intervals. Prices will only be adjusted if warranted by changes in demand with AT ensuring any pricing adjustment (increase or decrease) is visible to the customer. Surveys will measure the on-street occupancy for the times of the day that paid parking is in operation across at least three different days. AT may also elect to undertake spot surveys at other times (or at the request of local stakeholders) to ensure appropriate occupancy levels are being maintained.

Price adjustment

Prices may be adjusted either up or down in response to the occupancy surveys undertaken. In each case the goal is to maintain an average of 85% occupancy, as much as practicable. The average occupancy of each Price Area will be determined by the average of the highest four hours each day recorded in the occupancy surveys.

Prices will then be set according to the following formula:

  • When average occupancy is less than 50% the price will be reduced by up to 25% of the hourly rate with no minimum price.
  • When average occupancy is 50-70%, the price will be reduced by up to 15% of the hourly rate.
  • When average occupancy is 70-90%, the price will not change.
  • When average occupancy is 90-100%, the price will be increased by up to 15% of the hourly rate.

Times of operation

The standard hours of parking restrictions in New Zealand are 8am to 6pm. However, some areas of Auckland experience high parking demand in the evenings. AT will implement additional paid parking restriction hours where necessary to manage demand.

Peak and off-peak

Some areas experience significantly different parking demand on different days of the week or different times of the day. Where demands differ significantly AT will use peak and off-peak prices. Peak prices will be higher and will normally coincide with typical weekday working hours. Off-peak price will be lower and will usually apply in the weekends and evenings.

Notification

Price increases or decreases made by applying this policy will be notified through the parking page on our website. The business association in the affected town centre and Local Board will also be notified. AT will change the price no less than seven calendar days after notification.

Although AT will be clear and transparent when price changes occur, there will be no public consultation each time prices are adjusted in response to changes in parking demand.

2. Off-street parking management

AT manages a wide range of off-street parking facilities throughout Auckland, on behalf of the Auckland Council. These range from multi-level parking buildings with barrier controlled entry and exit, through to a number of smaller at-grade car parks in local shopping centres. AT manages six major parking buildings across Auckland (four in the CBD and one each in Manukau and New Lynn) and over 150 at-grade car parks. The car park buildings are all paid parking and usually have a range of different parking products, including leased parking. Surface car parks are either paid parking, time-restricted parking or unrestricted parking.

Two main parking regimes apply to the management of parking:

  • Long stay commuter parking provides parking for the working day. Commuter parking travel generally occurs during morning and evening peak periods.
  • Short-stay parking involves the provision of parking for shorter duration activities, such as shopping, entertainment, personal or business visits. Short stay parking travel generally occurs outside peak periods.

The management of off-street parking facilities is designed to align with AT’s strategic objectives, which are focussed on a mode shift towards public transport to help minimise traffic congestion. To achieve this, AT’s policies will prioritise short stay parking over commuter parking, and achieve a consistent approach to setting parking rates.

Public off-street parking provides an important shared parking resource that ultimately results in less overall parking compared with individual sites providing for the parking demand.

In the city centre, AT manages four major parking buildings with 4,900 off-street parking spaces. AT provides approximately 17% of the total supply of off street parking in the city centre. The city centre car parks provide a range of different products such as casual parking, leases, and reserved parking areas such as mobility and mothers with babies.

AT also manage Park and Ride sites that support the public transport system. Park and Ride parking will be covered in the Park and Ride section.


Policy 2A: Parking Intervention Triggers - off-street


As with on-street parking AT proposes a demand responsive management approach to its off-street car parking sites. Most off-street parking under the control of AT acts as an extension to on-street parking and forms part of the overall parking supply in a town centre.

The table below provides the trigger points where a new parking management control will be recommended to manage an increase in demand for parking. However, areas which experience low demand, or no change in demand, and don’t reach the trigger points, won't require any change.

Where parking demand is high, AT will apply various parking restrictions to achieve a target peak occupancy rate (the average of the four highest hours in a day) of 85% for on-street parking. This means that the parking resource is well used but people can still easily find a space, thus reducing congestion and frustration. When peak parking occupancy is regularly above 85%, AT will recommend a change to the parking management approach.

Some town centres wish to retain a supply of unrestricted off-street parking for local staff. Where there is good transport alternatives in place AT will recommend applying paid parking to the all-day parking supply. This will still allow for staff parking within the town centre but encourage alternatives to car travel. Customer parking can remain free pursuant to the triggers described below. 

Table 3: Off-street Parking Intervention Triggers

Issue/problemTrigger pointPolicy
Demand pressure in currently unrestricted car parks Occupancy rates for currently unrestricted spaces regularly exceed 85% at peak times. Introduce time restrictions suitable to local demand or paid parking for all-day commuter parking.
Demand pressure in car parks with current time restrictions Occupancy levels for time-restricted spaces regularly exceed 85% at peak times.

Investigate opportunities to reduce the time restriction and/or introduce additional time restrictions on adjacent streets,

OR

Introduce paid parking with no time limits and use demand responsive pricing.

Demand pressure in car parks with paid parking Occupancy rates for paid parking spaces regularly exceed 85% at peak times. Increase parking charges, in line with Policy 2B, improve public transport offering, or consider provision of additional off-street paid parking where investment criteria are met (see Table 5).

 


Policy 2B: Demand responsive priced parking – off-street


The objective of this policy is to align with strategic objectives, prioritise short stay parking over commuter parking, reduce congestion and achieve a consistent approach to setting parking rates. Short stay parking usually generates off peak car trips that are focussed on a range of economic activities including shopping, recreation, education, and services. As the city becomes busier with more events there will be a growing demand for short term parking for people vising the city centre for shopping, business or other activities.

The policy also enables flexibility and AT to offer the most appropriate parking products suitable to each centre. The mechanism for monitoring and setting prices is contained in the policy.

The policy sets out a methodology for setting prices so that short-term parking is prioritised and commuter parking prices are increased as car parks become full. The policy also proposes travel demand pricing to further discourage driving during peak traffic times.

AT will look to increasingly use phone technology to manage the car park buildings. Over time this will replace the need for costly and sometimes inconvenient barrier arms within the car park.

Table 4: Demand responsive priced parking: Off-street 

Scope

The scope of this policy covers all AT off-street car parks across the Auckland region, except Park and Ride car parks.

 

Principles

  • Pricing policies should be consistent with the organisation’s strategic objectives by supporting visitation to the CBD, promoting public transport use, discouraging commuter trips at peak times and reducing congestion.
  • Prioritise short stay parking over long stay parking.
  • Use a consistent, simple, rules-based, transparent and data-driven approach for setting parking rates.
  • Use demand responsive pricing and charge the lowest rates possible to achieve occupancy targets.
  • Ensure the peak demand for short-term parking is met most of the time.
  • Use discounts to achieve strategic outcomes such as discouraging peak commuting and reducing congestion.
  • Use specific parking management measures during special events and short seasonal peaks such as school holidays.

Price setting

This policy recognises that transitioning from an approach that focused on the commuter market to one that prioritises short-stay parking is a significant policy change. Rebalancing AT’s car parks in favour of short-term parking and travel demand management parking products that are consistent with AT’s strategic objectives will be a gradual process. The commuter market tends to consist of repeat customers who are likely to expect consistency in prices and are highly sensitive to price adjustments. Adjusting prices too rapidly is likely to lead to sharp changes in demand and result in unintended consequences that AT may struggle to manage. The approach will be to adjust prices gradually and be transparent about how prices will be set. The objective is to signal intentions early and avoid surprises to customers as much as possible.

 

Car parks

AT manages car park buildings and at-grade car parks across the Auckland region. Each car park experiences different parking demands for different parking products and therefore has a different parking profile. Whilst the specific product mixes, targets and prices set for each car park will vary the price adjustment principles that underpin each approach will be the same.

 

Peak and off-peak rates

Some car parks experience significantly different parking demand on different days of the week or different times of the day. Where demands differ significantly AT will use peak and off-peak prices. Peak prices will be higher and will normally coincide with typical weekday working hours. Off-peak prices will be lower and will usually apply in the weekends and evenings.

 

Demand responsive pricing

The parking prices in car parks will change gradually and periodically based on demand. This is consistent with the approach being used to manage on-street parking. Occupancy levels will be constantly monitored to ensure peak demand for short-stay parking is met most of the time. If the demand for parking in a car park is found to decrease, the prices will also decrease. Likewise, if the demand for parking in a car park is found to increase, the prices will increase. Demand will be constantly monitored in the car park buildings with AT ensuring any pricing adjustments (increase or decrease) is visible well in advance to the customer and only if warranted by demand. The only exception to this would be reducing prices for promotions during special events such as school holidays. This provides the flexibility required to adapt to fluid market conditions.

 

Setting yield targets

Each parking product (i.e. concession lease, casual, early bird, etc.) provides a different yield. For example, a typical early bird parker who arrives in the morning will park for around 8 hours and leave around 5pm. If the early bird price is set at $13 the yield from that space during the weekday peak will be $13. On the other hand a single space may be occupied by several casual parkers at different times throughout the peak period. If the casual rate is set at $3 per hour and the space is occupied for a total of 6 hours the yield would be $18.

 

AT will set yield targets for each parking product. The yield target is the amount of revenue per space that AT aims to achieve for each parking products. The targets will be based on the following approach:

  • Prices for commuter parking products will be set to return a similar yield across all commuter products. However, commuters that prefer a guaranteed parking space will be required to pay a premium price.
  • In order to prioritise short-stay parking AT will aim to achieve a lower yield from short stay products than from commuter products.
  • Parking products that achieve specific travel demand management outcomes, such as car-pooling or off-peak travel, may be discounted in recognition of their contribution to supporting AT’s strategic objectives.

Hourly, daily and monthly prices

  • Daily and monthly prices will be set based on a formula in relation to the hourly rates. This allows daily and monthly parking prices to fluctuate based on demand along hourly rates. The exact formulas will depend on the parking profile of each individual car park building but will be based on the same principles.
  • Hourly rates: Hourly rates will be set according to demand.
  • Daily prices: The maximum daily price will be set between 5 and 10 times the hourly rate.
  • Monthly unallocated spaces:The monthly unallocated weekday business hours space price will be set between 18 and 24 times the daily price. This reflects the approximate number of days in a month that a lease holder would use the car park.
  • Monthly reserved spaces: The monthly reserved space price for weekday business hours will attract a 30% to 70% premium on the monthly unallocated spaces.
  • Travel Demand Management products: Products which support AT’s strategic objectives (i.e. car-pooling, off-peak travel) will receive a discount of between 10% and 50%.

 

Simple parking products

The transition to demand responsive pricing offers the opportunity to eliminate some parking products and simplify the customer experience. AT will aim to simplify the range of parking products in its car park buildings.

 

Special events and seasonal peaks

AT may use special event pricing and specific parking management measures to deal with the impacts of special events and short seasonal peaks such as school holidays. For example during capping ceremonies additional spaces may be reserved for short stay parkers and existing commuters would be warned beforehand that there would be limited availability and advised to make alternative arrangements.

 

Customer benefits

 

The customer benefits expected are:
  • Accessibility – Short stay parking will be prioritised making the CBD more accessible for short-stay visitors and support visitation.
  • Fair – parking prices will be set at the lowest possible price to ensure the peak demand for short stay parking is met.
  • Congestion – providing discounts and price incentives for car-poolers or customers that arrive outside peak times will help alleviate congestion.

 


Policy 2C: Off-Street Parking Investment Criteria


AT’s investment in off-street parking may be justified in circumstances where the supply of on-street parking is not sufficient to meet demand despite the use of other management options, including pricing. Providing a central parking facility that can be shared among all users’ results in less overall parking required than if each business provided its own parking.

AT considers that public transport should be a priority in terms of capital expenditure and any off-street parking investment should be commercially viable. Any development of additional off-street car parking should result in great urban design outcomes and be consistent with Auckland Council’s Urban Design Manual.

This policy does not apply to the provision of Park and Ride facilities. See the Park and Ride section below for information on Park and Ride provision. 

Table 5: Criteria to be met before additional investment in off-street parking

CriteriaDescription
Unsatisfied demand for parking On street parking is already subject to demand-responsive pricing, and occupancy of existing paid parking spaces in the area regularly exceeds 85% during peak periods (busiest 4 hour periods).
Growth in demand expected The area is expected to experience significant growth in employment and/or population over the next 5-10 years, or is identified as a priority growth centre in the Auckland Plan.
Public transport alternatives not viable Planned improvements to the public transport system are not sufficient to cater to projected travel demand particularly in dispersed catchments. 
Consistency with local planning policies The development of off-street parking facilities is consistent with any relevant Local Board Plan or Comprehensive Parking Management Plan (CPMP), and will not have significant adverse effects on the local environment or amenity.
Potential consolidation of parking The development of additional off street parking provides the opportunity to consolidate existing and/or future off-street parking that will provide benefits to the local area through improved amenity and urban design, better traffic management, and safer street access points .
Road capacity  The road network is able to accommodate the additional traffic generated as a result of the parking facility, at the times of expected peak demand.
Return on investment The expected user revenues from the facility provide an adequate return on investment, (after taking into account the any wider economic benefits to non-users).

Private sector funding

Opportunities exist for private sector funding contributions to the facility (possibly through development contributions charged as an alternative to the provision of on-site parking. This would be subject to the development of a specific contribution plan for off street parking.
Private sector investment in parking The private sector has not responded to the market signals that are influenced by AT through its approach to on-street parking supply and pricing.

 


Policy 2D: Divestment in off-street parking


Since the amalgamation of the councils there has been a need for AT to review the off-street parking stock that it manages to ensure that the supply is appropriate to meet existing and future needs. An over-supply of parking, or parking in the wrong location, can compromise objectives to support alternative travel modes, including public transport, walking and cycling. There are also situations where a car parking site may have a more productive alternative use, such as transit-oriented development, urban renewal or transport interchanges. In some town centres there are opportunities for consolidation of parking sites to make better use of land within a centre or to concentrate vehicle movements into certain streets and away from others.

To assist with decisions on divestment the following criteria will be taken into account:

  • Existing and future populations and employment growth in the catchment.
  • Existing and future car based travel demand and the capacity of the existing car parking supply to meet those demands.
  • Plans for increasing public transport investment in the area.
  • Unitary Plan provisions, Auckland Council area plans, and other strategic plans and initiatives.
  • Proximity to arterial roads that support public transport or cycling corridors.
  • Proximity to high-frequency public transport stations.
  • The level at which the car park serves the whole town centre and not just a small number of dominant businesses.
  • The utilisation of the parking facility and surrounding parking supply.
  • The economic value of the parking facility.

A summary of the process is as follows:

Figure 1: Off-street car park divestment process

Figure 1: Off-street car park divestment process

3. Parking on residential streets

As Auckland intensifies managing parking on residential streets will become increasingly important. Overcrowded parking is particularly an issue in fringe suburbs surrounding the CBD where there are many heritage properties without off-street parking. A lack of available on-street parking impacts significantly on local residents and their visitors, and AT receives regular feedback regarding this.

High parking demand is also a problem in residential areas located near larger town centres and high-frequency public transport stations. However, the problem for residents is often less significant due to there being a higher proportion of properties with off-street parking in these areas.

It's important to note that on-street parking on residential streets is part of the public road that is under the jurisdiction of AT.


Policy 3A: Resident street intervention approach


AT proposes a continuum of parking management interventions to address parking pressures in residential streets. Each residential area and street is different and the solutions need to be tailored to each situation. For example, a street located near a busy rail station where most houses have off-street parking may only require some localised time restrictions to assist with visitors access. However an inner city suburb near the CBD where many historic houses are without off-street parking may require a more comprehensive solution including residential permits.

The following objectives apply to management of parking in residential streets:

  1. Reduce the negative impacts of high parking demand on local communities.
  2. Discourage CBD commuter parking in city fringe suburbs.

AT will use a continuum approach for addressing parking problems in residential areas.

  1. Residential parking zone. This approach is used in older suburbs such as the city fringe where parking demand is high across a larger area and many properties do not have off-street parking. Applying restrictions across a larger area is more effective in reducing the commuter parking problems.
  2. Apply time restrictions to sections of a street (approximately 25%). This approach should be used when the parking problems are limited to a few streets and most of the properties have off-street parking. Will initially be used in residential streets around some public transport stations. Typically P120 time restrictions are used and no permits are issued under this approach.

This wil increase intensity of land-use and parking demand.


Policy 3B: Residential parking schemes


Historically, there have been several different approaches used to try and manage parking in inner city residential streets. In July 2012, AT implemented a trial residential parking zone in St Marys Bay to address concerns about commuter parking. The trial parking zone has blanket two-hour time restrictions and the residents are all able to purchase permits that provide an exemption. The trial has been successful in reducing the impact of commuter parking on residents. However, there have been concerns from local businesses about reduced space for staff parking.

Many residential communities have given AT feedback that they are increasingly being impacted by commuter parking in their streets. Public consultation revealed that residents in inner city suburbs wanted residential permit schemes to manage the parking pressures.

AT will establish a programme for the implementation of residential parking zones in residential streets affected by high parking demand and meeting the requirements of the policy below. This will include comprehensive community consultation and engagement.

Residential parking zone

Residential parking zones will have a time limit across the zone to prioritise short-term parking and deter commuter parking. Residents will be able to purchase parking permits to allow an exemption to the time restriction. Due to the permit applying to the zone it doesn’t guarantee a parking space in the residents street and there will be a cap on the total number of permits available (as a percentage of overall spaces within a zone) to ensure that the scheme is sustainable.

To cater for local businesses, residential visitors and tradespeople, there will be the ability to pay for a full days parking within a residential parking zone. A residential parking zone will also free up parking space for customers of local businesses. The daily price will be adjusted either up or down using the principles of demand responsive pricing. 

Parking permit allocation and fees

When consulting on the introduction of a residential parking zone AT will invite expressions of interest to determine likely parking permit demand. Parking permits will then be allocated based on a priority system as described in the policy below. One permit will be allocated to each priority category before issuing a second permit. This will continue if required up until the total cap on permits is reached.

Parking permits are for residents in the applicable area and proof of address and registration details will be required.

Residential parking permits will be issued on an annual basis. The fee for parking in a residential parking zone will be set to recover the costs of administering the scheme including regular enforcement. 

New developments

To protect the sustainability of residential parking schemes AT believe that new developments within residential parking zones should not be eligible for parking permits. This will avoid developers passing on the costs of providing parking to ratepayers. Developers and new residents associated with new developments have a responsibility to ensure they have sufficient parking off-street to meet their needs.

Properties built after the release of the Unitary Plan (30/09/2013) will not be eligible for permits to avoid developers passing the costs of providing parking on to AT.

AT will prepare information to assist developers, new buyers and tenants in understanding the new restrictions.

Technology and enforcement

AT will make use of new technology to ensure that residential parking zones remain an effective solution for managing parking demand and reducing the impact on residents.

AT currently uses a manual system to process residential parking applications. Parking permits consist of labels that need to be displayed inside a vehicles windscreen. This can be a time-consuming process and results in residents not being issued with a permit immediately. AT will replace the existing manual label-based system with an online and phone application system linking permits to vehicle registration. This would allow residential and visitor permits to be issued immediately (subject to verification of eligibility).

The linking of permits to vehicle registration reduces the potential for misuse and allows for the implementation of technology, such as Licence Plate Recognition (LPR) cameras for enforcement. LPR consists of an in-vehicle camera that reads and recognises each vehicle’s licence plate. LPR can identify whether the vehicle has overstayed the time restriction and if the vehicle has a permit. LPR therefore has the potential to become a key element of an effective, automated enforcement system that protects permit holders.

AT will implement new technology to transform the customer experience and allow for effective management of residential parking schemes.

Existing residential permit schemes

AT inherited many different residential parking schemes from the legacy councils. These schemes have been honoured by AT and remain in existence. When a new residential scheme is proposed it will replace the existing schemes in that area.

Residents Only parking permits are where a dedicated space is allocated to each permit holder. In 2007, Auckland City Council decided to phase out Residents Only parking permits by not allowing the permits to be transferred to new owners when a property sells. Residents Only permits will remain valid until a new scheme is proposed in the same area, or the residential property is sold (the permit is not transferred to the new owner).

Implementing residential parking zones

AT will consider the implementation of a residential parking zone when:

  • The parking occupancy is regularly above 85% occupancy at peak times.
  • AT receives multiple requests for a parking zone and there is support from the local board.

A residential parking zone will have the following components:

  • A time restriction across the zone, typically 2 hours.
  • Restrictions will apply at different times depending on the specific situation but typically Monday to Friday (excluding public holidays).
  • The number of residential permits will be capped at a percentage of the total number of parking spaces.
  • Parking permits will be issued based on priority according to Figure 2.
  • A daily parking charge to give local residents, businesses and their visitors the ability to stay longer than the time restriction. Residents will receive 50 free days per year for visitors.
  • Properties built after the release of the Unitary Plan (30/09/2013) will not be eligible for permits.

Figure 2: Priority scale for the issuing of residential parking permits

Figure 2: Priority scale for the issuing of residential parking permits

Existing residential permits

Existing Residents Exempt permits

These permits will remain valid until a new residential scheme is proposed in the area. The new scheme will supersede the existing and the permit holder will have to apply for a new permit under the new residential scheme policy.

Existing Residents Only permits

Residents Only permits will remain valid until:

  • A new scheme is proposed in the same area, or
  • The residential property is sold, whereby the permit is not transferred to the new owner.

Policy 3C: Narrow residential streets


Many older residential streets are very narrow and overcrowded parking can cause access problems, particularly for emergency services. People sometimes park on the footpath on these narrow streets which degrades the pedestrian amenity of the street. Emergency services have advised that they require at least 2.5 metres of clearance to allow for sufficient access down streets in case of an emergency.

Narrow streets

If a street is less than 6.5 metres in width and there are known access problems AT will complete an assessment of the street. If it's determined that there are limited places for vehicles to pass and emergency access may be compromised then AT will propose removing parking on one side of the street. This will be done by applying a No Stopping restriction (broken yellow lines) to alternating sides of the street to assist in slowing vehicles down. Consultation will always be carried out with all residents in the street when this is proposed.

4. Parking on arterial roads

Auckland’s arterial road network accommodates approximately 60% of all bus trips, 40% of car trips and 35% of goods trips. The multiple demands for space on arterial roads are increasingly in conflict with kerbside car parking.

Consistent journey times are critical to increasing public transport use. The Frequent Transit Network (FTN) bus corridors run mostly on arterial roads, providing high frequency services throughout the day. On some arterial roads on-street parking and loading will increasingly inhibit the frequency and reliability of these bus services, reducing corridor capacity and increasing congestion.

The Regional Cycle Network (ACN) and associated facilities (such as advance cycle stops on arterial roads) provide important links to the off-road cycle network, to town centres, public transport interchanges, residential areas and schools. Vehicle congestion and on-street parking on arterial roads reduces the capacity for implementing cycle lanes and increases the safety risks.

AT recognises the need to take a measured approach to the management of parking on arterial roads when they pass through town centres and other locations with sensitive land uses. The management and supply of car parking on arterial roads through town centres will therefore require particular attention and a case by case assessment that takes into account local characteristics.


Policy 4A: Parking on arterial roads


Scope

This policy refers to arterial roads as described in the Proposed Auckland Unitary Plan (PAUP), or in cases where the PAUP is not active, to the relevant District Plan. 

Objectives

FUNCTIONOBJECTIVE
Carrying capacity Maximise the number of people (and goods) that can be moved along the corridor.
Public transport Improve the speed and reliability of public transport along the Frequent Transit Network (FTN).
Cycling Support the development of the Auckland Cycle Network.

Parking management approach

AT will manage parking on arterial roads by extending clearways, or removing parking where it:

  • inhibits the capacity of the road to carry more people (& goods) particularly in the peak periods, and/or,
  • causes significant delays to the speed and reliability of public transport on the FTN, and/or,
  • causes safety risks for cyclists or impedes quality improvements of the Auckland cycle network.

Consideration must be given to the impacts of any parking changes on place-making, centre amenity, traffic calming and pedestrian environment where arterials pass through town centres.

If there's a significant loss of on-street parking on an arterial road AT will complete a parking assessment. This will include the parking in centres (including the city centre) located on the arterial road and look at potential parking mitigation measures.

Measures to mitigate a loss in parking include:

  • Better utilisation of parking on side streets by implementing additional time restrictions.
  • Better utilisation of off-street car parks.
  • Improving directional and information signage.
  • Investigate additional parking opportunities in the road reserve.
  • Decisions on whether additional investments in off-street parking is warranted (subject to assessment under Policy 2C).

5. Parking permits and coupons

A parking permit provides an exemption from a parking restriction to allow the user to carry out essential work or park near their place of residence. This implies that some users have a higher priority for the use of parking which could not reasonably be satisfied if exemptions weren't provided.

AT currently issues more than 6,000 parking permits issued to over 1,000 different permit holders every year. A number of these permits reflect previous legacy arrangements but there is a lack of clear policy to guide the issuance of permits. Permits are currently allocated to wide range of users including residents, tradespeople, healthcare organisations, and sports clubs.

In some cases, parking permits enable holders to park free of charge in high demand streets such as those in the CBD. AT receives complaints about contractor vehicles parking on retail streets for much of the day and restricting customer access. Allowing very cheap or free on-street parking in the CBD for certain commercial users isn't considered to be a fair system.

The removal of time limits from most on-street paid parking areas in the city means that it is now possible for anyone to park for the time they require. A system where everyone pays directly for the parking that they use is preferable. AT is looking to introduce new technologies to make paying for parking simple and more convenient.

In some locations permits will still be required to provide exemptions from time restrictions. The policies below have been designed to ensure that parking permits are allocated in a fair and equitable manner based on need, and that eligibility is clearly understood.


Policy 5A: Parking Permits


AT requires a parking permit policy that clearly defines the categories and eligibility criteria. Parking permits should be limited to the highest priority users that have needs that may not be catered for by general parking restrictions. However, people should be encouraged to pay directly for the parking that they use rather than rely on a parking permit that offers exemptions that other users don’t receive. The policy describes the parking permit categories that AT will offer.

AT will phase out all permits that don’t fit into the new permit categories described in the policy below. It's understood that there are many permits that may have historical arrangements with legacy councils. For these permits a sunset clause of six months will be offered to give time for each permit holder to find alternative arrangements. 

Principles

The key principles guiding the allocation of parking permits are:

  • Parking permits should assist critical services carry out their various functions.
  • In most cases parking permits should offer convenience but not an exemption from the cost of parking.
  • All permits should be priced.
  • All permits should be linked to a vehicle's registration.

Permits and coupons


Critical services permit

These permits are available for the following services:

  • Emergency services (police, ambulance) attending emergency situations in an unmarked vehicle.
  • Critical healthcare and non-profit community support services.
  • Emergency infrastructure repair services such as vehicles repairing Auckland's energy, water, and phone networks.

These permits are able to be used in some time restricted areas and paid parking areas.


Residential permit

  • For residents and visitors who qualify under a residential parking scheme.


Event permit

  • These permits will be issued by AT only after approval by Regional Facilities Auckland, Auckland Tourism, Events and Economic Development or the AT Major Events team.
  • These permits can be used in time restricted and paid parking areas.
  • These permits will only be valid for the duration of a specific event.


Authorised vehicles parking permit

  • These permits can be used in a specific area that's set aside for permit holders parking only such as a car share space.
  • Permits only considered in exceptional circumstances where a solution cannot be provided under the existing parking permits categories.

Policy 5B: Parking coupons


A coupon system will replace many of the essential service permits that contractors and tradespeople use in the CBD and other areas. The coupon system will still offer convenience but will more accurately reflect the cost of using on-street parking. For shorter stays it may be more economical to pay at the parking machine.

Coupons will be available for selected users that require an exemption from time restrictions or an alternative way to pay for paid parking to allow them to carry out their work.

Coupons will be charged per day rather than the current monthly or half yearly permits, however greater time periods will be able to be purchased. New technology will provide the platform to enable the coupon system to be customer friendly and easily enforced.

Coupons will be priced based on the area and the parking restriction exemption.

Table 8: Permits and coupons

CouponDescription
Coupon (different coupons will be valid in different areas based on the restriction they are exempting)
  • Coupons will be based on a daily price that will allow exemption from the restrictions in that area.
  • Coupons will be available for:
    • Tradespeople and contractors
    • Governing Body (Councillors)
    • Some public service entities
  • Coupons will be technology based and simple to use 

 


Policy 5C: Technology for parking permits and coupons


AT currently uses a manual system to process parking permit applications. Parking permits consist of labels that need to be displayed inside a vehicle’s windscreen. This can be a time-consuming process and results in users not being issued with a permit immediately. AT will replace the existing manual labelbased system with an online and phone application system linking permits to vehicle registration. This would allow permits to be issued immediately (subject to verification of eligibility).

AT is also looking to implement a technology based parking payment system that will complement the pay and display machines. This will allow people to pay for parking directly from their phone, through a phone app or 0800 number, without the need to visit a machine. This will offer greater flexibility and convenience. It will also allow businesses to hold accounts and itemise parking sessions for on-charging.

AT will implement new technologies to transform the customer experience and allow for:

  • Improved application process for parking permits and coupons.
  • Better and more convenient options for payment of on-street parking charges.
  • Improved enforcement system.

6. Comprehensive Parking Management Plans

Comprehensive Parking Management Plans (CPMPs) provide guidance on how to manage parking in centres and other locations with parking demand pressures over the short, medium and long term, based on analysis of local circumstances. CPMPs include recommendations and supporting evidence to enable AT to implement measures to manage parking including introduction of restrictions or pricing. They will also assist in decisions regarding divesting, retaining or providing additional parking supply to meet future demand.

The Proposed Auckland Unitary Plan recommends the development and implementation of CPMPs for metorpolitan, town and other activity centres, with particular priority given to the metropolitan centres. CPMPs will provide guidance for assessing resource management applications which affect parking supply and demand.


Policy 6A: Criteria for the development of CPMPs


CPMP’s will be developed in consultation with the local community and business stakeholders to reflect local issues. CPMPs provide a comprehensive assessment of parking across the study area, an analysis of issues, and make short, medium and long-term recommendations.

Table 9: CPMPs

AT will prioritise the development of CPMPs with regard to:

  • An overall assessment of parking problems based on centre hierarchy, projected traffic demand, public transport availability, market attractiveness to support growth, use of available parking capacity, and amount of non-retail employment.
  • Requests from the community, business association or local board as a result of demonstrable parking problems.
  • Requests from Auckland Council in relation to the development of centre, area and precinct plans.
  • The integration of parking with major transport projects (e.g. the Auckland Manukau Eastern Transport Initiative).

AT will prepare CPMPs for metropolitan, town and other activity centres which include the following content:

  • Auckland Council’s plans for the centre’s growth, renewal and amenity.
  • Relevant statutory and strategic controls and land use change.
  • Availability of efficient and reliable public transport and anticipated projects.
  • A description and evaluation of the known parking problems existing in the centre.
  • Existing supply and future projected supply of on street and off street parking.
  • Detailed parking occupancy surveys to baseline the existing parking demand.
  • Projected car parking demands for the centre.
  • Recommended measures to manage parking in the centre, taking account of the tools outlined in this strategy.

7. Parking policies for non-centre employment locations

Non-centre employment zones experience different parking demand attributes to town centres. Areas such as business or industrial parks often don’t have good public transport options as they are more dispersed and don’t generate much demand outside the morning and evening peaks. Consequently most staff tend to drive to work in these areas, and demand for all-day parking is high. The short-term on-street parking demand is usually fairly low as most sites have some off-street parking dedicated to visitors.

While most industrial areas are designed with wide streets for truck movements there are often access difficulties, particularly in older industrial areas. Trucks often find it difficult to manoeuvre into sites when cars are parked on both sides of the street.

Tertiary education campuses and hospitals generally have good public transport options and AT is committed to improving public transport to these locations. However public transport coverage may be limited in some areas. Around Auckland most tertiary education campuses and hospitals are high parking generators. There are usually spill-over parking impacts on public roads in these locations that AT need to manage.

Travel Demand Management (TDM) is a cost-effective method of reducing congestion, improving journey time reliability and reducing the environmental impact of transport. TDM programmes improve roadway productivity and offer excellent value for money as there are rarely any infrastructure costs. TDM can delay, reduce or eliminate the need for costly new infrastructure.

Analysis of other OECD countries and major events shows the potential for even small-scale TDM projects to have a lasting legacy of behaviour change.


Policy 7A: Non-centre employment locations


The day-to-day management of demand for on-street parking space in non-centre employment areas will be managed in accordance with the on-street parking management policies outlined in this document. However, AT will endeavour to work with businesses in these areas to inform and encourage travel alternatives to the car to try and reduce congestion and parking pressures.

Over time, AT will seek the introduction of Travel Demand Management options in non-centre employment areas to reduce the incidence of all-day parking on the street. As part of this approach, AT offers Commute, a travel planning programme engaging with workplaces, business associations, tertiary institutions and households. The programme offers a range of services to support sustainable travel including public transport promotion and give-it-a-go passes, carpooling programme, cycle training and bike hire and multi-modal travel expos.

To address the issues in non-centre locations AT will:

  • Continue to make improvements to public transport,
  • Apply the on-street parking management policies, and
  • Implement Travel Demand Management initiatives in employment areas to reduce the overall parking demand.

In some of these areas where the parking issues are considered particularly complex, AT will develop Comprehensive Parking Management Plans.

8. Parking enforcement

AT’s Parking Services Enforcement team offers an evolving regime of compliance management. Parking enforcement operates 365 days a year across the entire Auckland region. 

Parking enforcement is an essential component of the transport system. Enforcement encourages the turnover of vehicles to allow access to parking in town centres. Enforcement also keeps traffic and public transport flowing on key arterial roads, and enables access to private property.

The parking enforcement services carried out by AT include:

  • Regularly monitoring all parking restrictions to ensure compliance. 
  • Checking vehicles for Warrant of Fitness (WOF) and Registration and issuing appropriate infringement notices.
  • Monitoring all clearways, bus lanes and transit lanes at different stages of the day.
  • Delivering way-finding information and transport advice to the public.
  • Responding to requests for service from the public, such as illegally parked vehicles, blocked vehicle entranceways and vehicles of concern.
  • Attend Safety at the School Gate programmes in conjunction with Road Safety to assist in the delivery of safer school zones.
  • Proactively manage mobility spaces to enable access for mobility impaired card holders.

The entire team of dedicated officers is St Johns trained and they are often the first on the scene in incidents in the Auckland CBD and some other areas. AT also works closely with the NZ Police on a range of issues such as in-car crime.

The public often requests more regular parking enforcement to discourage illegal parking behaviour. Because AT manages parking across the entire Auckland region it is sometimes difficult to respond to all requests in short timeframes. There are new technology advancements which can improve the efficiency of parking enforcement and allow AT to extend coverage using the same resources.

The value of parking infringement fines is very low and has not been changed for 15 years. The value of the infringement fee for overstaying a time restriction is up to eight times higher in Australia. As the cost of parking in Auckland increases, the low infringement fines no longer act as a deterrent to non-compliance. In 2008 the infringement fee for parking in a mobility space without a permit was increased from $40 to $150. By 2012 the number of infringements issued for this offence had dropped by 70 %.


Policy 8A: Parking enforcement


AT will:

  • Continue to offer a high level of customer service.
  • Investigate and implement new technology to improve the efficiency of parking enforcement and offer better service across Auckland.
  • Advocate for increases to the infringement levels as set out in the Land Transport (offences and penalties) Regulations.

9. Motorcycle, electric vehicle and car share parking policies

Motorcycles and scooters are an increasingly popular transport choice for commuters travelling to Auckland’s CBD. AT has allocated dedicated motorcycle parking within car park buildings in the CBD in recent times. Use of motorcycles can reduce the amount of congestion of the roads and take up less parking space than cars. Typically four motorcycles can be parked in one car space. Motorcycle parking is sometimes provided within shared space streets to provide activation and a buffer between cars and pedestrians.

Electric vehicles are predicted to experience a surge in demand over coming years. Many cities around the world are installing on-street electric vehicle charging stations to provide a service to users and further promote the uptake and use of e-vehicles. Electric vehicles can also contribute towards the Auckland Plan targets for a 20% reduction in greenhouse gas emission by 2020.

Car sharing organisations (CSOs) provide members with access to a fleet of shared vehicles located in neighbourhoods for rental on a short-term basis, making it easier for households to live with a reduced number of private vehicles. Car sharing has been very popular overseas but has been slow to take off in Auckland. International and local research has shown that people who are members of car sharing schemes are also more likely to use public transport, walk and cycle. AT is inviting proposals for a large-scale electric vehicle car sharing scheme for Auckland.


Policy 9A: Motorcycle Parking, Electric Vehicles and Car Share


In areas of high demand AT will seek to introduce more on-street motorcycle parking facilities. It is important that short stay on-street motorcycle parking is prioritised in order to remain consistent with the strategic objectives.

Dedicated motorcycle parking is provided in all AT car parking buildings. AT will look to continue to provide these facilities. However, charging will be considered if demand increases to the point that car parking is being removed.

AT provides dedicated car share parking space both in car park buildings and on-street. AT will continue to support car sharing by offering on-street space that will be open to all car sharing organisations. There may be charges applied to cover the setup and maintenance of these spaces.

AT will promote the use of electric vehicles in car sharing schemes by enabling charging infrastructure to be installed on public roads and within AT managed car park buildings.

10. Events

Auckland hosts over 3,000 recognised events each year. Many of these events occur on our public roads and require a Traffic Management Plan (TMP). TMPs need to be approved by AT before the event takes place. Larger events may even require a road to be closed temporarily. Road closures must be advertised to the public in order to meet legal requirements.


Policy 10A: Events


For events around the region, the AT Special Events team will work with the event organiser, Auckland Tourism Events and Economic Development (ATEED), Regional Facilities Auckland, Auckland Council and other key stakeholders to develop a traffic management plan (TMP) for the event. Through the TMP process AT will look to ensure the mobility parking is being provided as close as possible to the event. The loss of parking will be kept to the essential areas, providing a safe pedestrian environment and sufficient public transport facilities. Any loss of parking will be communicated to local stakeholders prior to the event. Safety for those enjoying an event and minimum disruption to the rest of the network is always a priority.

Public transport is the biggest priority for AT for moving people to and from events. AT will often work with event promoters to provide ‘included in your ticket’ public transport for events to encourage PT use and minimise the impact on the surrounding road network and communities. Many large events are based in and around the CBD where there is good public transport links and also a large supply of public parking. Generally parking will not be provided free in city centre car park buildings for events however the Santa Parade is the exception. There are historical arrangements for the Santa Parade however many Aucklander’s agree that parking should not be provided for free at CBD car parks during events as it encourages car travel.

11. Technology

There has been a significant evolution in parking management technology in recent years. These technologies make parking more customer friendly, improve management, improve officer safety and reduce congestion and operating costs.

Internationally, there is a clear trend towards innovative technologies to improve parking management and payment automation. This includes electronic payments and real-time customer information through smart phones.

Linking registration plates to parking payments provides significant customer benefits and increases the efficiency of enforcement. Using the registration plate allows a customer to update their parking time remotely through a phone app or phone call. Enforcement can been carried out by checking registration plates for payments and in some areas mobile camera with registration plate recognition technology can be used to increase efficiency.


Policy 11A: Technology


Parking management systems

AT will introduce an integrated technology solution to manage parking as one system. AT will explore technology solutions to maximise compliance, monitor parking occupancy, offer additional customer payments channels and provide parking related information to all road users.

Phone payment

Introduce phone payment technology that allows customers to pay or top up parking remotely. A mobile application for payment of parking will provide the largest customer benefits however Interactive Voice Response (IVR) and 0800 capabilities will also be offered. This will also provide access to parking information such as parking availability, tariff and operating times.

Data collection

The on-going collection of parking data is important for implementation of demand responsive pricing policies. Technologies such as CCTV integration can provide live occupancy information.

AT HOP integration with parking

AT will integrate AT HOP with parking payment systems to offer customers more payment options. Having an AT HOP payment options will encourage greater uptake of the system and may increase use of public transport.

Enforcement

AT will adopt technology that can deliver operational efficiencies and more targeted enforcement. Residential parking zones will be enforced using Licence Plate Recognition (LPR) technology mounted on vehicles. This will increase the coverage of the residential areas and provide a better service to the residents of these areas.

12. Park and Ride provision

Park and Ride facilities comprise an integral part of the public transport network and can be regarded as extensions to stations and terminals.

Park and Ride facilities located in the right places can effectively extend the market catchments for the public transport network. Recent surveys indicate that Park and Ride facilities at peripheral locations serve extensive catchments, in some cases from outside of the Auckland region. In these locations, provision of alternative frequent feeder services to public transport nodes and the Rapid and Frequent network aren't viable due to being cost prohibitive.

Park and Ride facilities contribute to decongestion on Auckland’s road networks by intercepting commuter trips that would otherwise have been made by car. By relocating commuter parking from the city centre to more peripheral locations more people can access public transport from further away and reduce private vehicle trips.

Currently, Auckland has around 5,500 existing Park and Ride bays of which 80% are at capacity by 8 am. At least half of the Park and Ride sites have a significant overflow onto surrounding streets affecting amenity and accessibility of town centres and residential areas. Where overspill onto surrounding streets becomes problematic AT will apply the on-street parking policies to manage demand.


Policy 12A: Park and Ride programme


AT has assessed that up to an additional 10,000 bays would be required to meet modelled demand for Park and Ride by 2046. The modelling results on car access for 2026 and 2046 were supported by surveys of users to determine the proportion of riders who used Park and Ride to access stations. A multi criteria analysis was also undertaken to estimate the best locations for the provision of Park and Ride on a site by site basis. The analysis took into account principles relating to maximising PT patronage, interception of commuter trips, decongestion benefits, land availability and physical characteristics, capital and operating costs.

The basic levels of service for a Park and Ride which will be provided by AT are: sealed surfaces, lighting, litter bins located within 200 metres from a PT station or terminal and surveillance (CCTV).  Major Park and Ride sites also often incorporate bus interchange facilities, sheltered access, good amenity and provision for walking and cycling integration. The draft AT Code of practice contains design principles to be considered for Park and Ride.

AT will apply the following principles to prioritise sites for Park and Ride provision in Auckland:

  • Integrate with public transport – Park and Ride is planned as an integral part of the public transport network, extends the customer base and encourages public transport patronage.
  • Maximise benefits of Park and Ride for public transport – site in locations that have frequent and rapid services available and less effective feeder services, walking and cycling opportunities. 
  • Locate facilities to intercept commuter trips by being ‘on the way’ from high potential catchment areas based on assessed demand.
  • Relieve congestion - locate to relieve congestion by intercepting commuter traffic, and ensure vehicles accessing the facilities would not worsen local traffic congestion.
  • Provide in line with corresponding improvements to the public transport network such as station/ferry terminal upgrades to maximise investment.
  • Enable a transition of land use that supports transit oriented development in the right locations.

AT will also investigate options for establishing parking sites at the urban periphery where there may be greater availability of land and linking these sites to park and ride locations via a shuttle service.

In some cases a Park and Ride facility may be full yet there may be other facilities in the vicinity with capacity. To assist customers and public transport riders, AT will look to providing information on parking availability at other park and ride stations especially in areas of very high demand.

In some cases, where the demand for Park and Ride facilities is excessive and is forecast to increase significantly, AT will review the public transport network feeder services to determine if new and improved services should be delivered rather than additional Park and Ride facilities. In these cases demand will be used as a trigger to reassess network requirements.

The park and ride programme encompasses three types of delivery modes:

  1. Leasing Opportunities: Sites that may be underutilised during the weekday such as shopping centres, recreational facilities (sporting fields), churches that meet the Park and Ride policy principles.
  2. New Builds:  Extensions to existing Park and Ride sites or new sites. These include strategic sites that AT will work with NZTA on to prioritise and fund the provision. Alternatively, AT will investigate the potential for delivering new sites through commercial/alternative funding options. AT will work with Development Auckland to advance some of these initiatives. There are also opportunities to work with Kiwi Rail to provide Park and Ride on strips of land adjacent to stations which would have very limited potential for alternative use.
  3. Rationalising Existing Parking: Improving the arrangement of existing car parking spaces in town centres and off street parking.

Map 1 shows the proposed Park and Ride sites that are being investigated to increase capacity. The size of the circles represents the proposed number of additional bays that could potentially be added. It is noted that the investigation of sites will be an ongoing and dynamic process that will seek to maximise opportunities.

Map 1: Proposed sites to investigate over the next 30 years

Map 1: Proposed sites to investigate over the next 30 years

13. Pricing for Park and Ride

AT Park and Ride facilities

Pricing Park and Ride at AT managed facilities will influence how people travel to stations and terminals especially if there are good alternative travel options available. Pricing can lead to more riders using alternative means to access public transport stations and terminals where alternative options are available such as frequent feeder buses and there are good walking and cycling options within defined catchments. The propensity to shift behaviour will be greater in higher density urbanised catchments such as transit oriented development where there is greater accessibility.

If people with good travel alternatives use other means to get to stations and terminals, this would increase the availability of Park and Ride bays to users who have limited alternative options to access transport nodes. This would maximise the use of Park and Ride facilities, reduce vehicle trips and increase public transport useage, walking and cycling.

On the other hand, pricing of Park and Ride in areas that are not well served by frequent services, particularly on the urban periphery, could decrease public transport patronage. The extent to which patronage would be impacted would also depend on a combination of factors such as the price, ease and convenience with which interchanges at Park and Ride facilities operate, supply of parking bays and perceived security. A reduction in public transport patronage would also result in increased congestion on the network.

Park and Ride stations located on the urban periphery and at the extremities of the rapid and frequent transit networks attract commuters from wide catchments including inter-regional areas. For example at Albany and Pukekohe, AT surveys indicate people travel in excess of 30km to access Park and Ride facilities. In these areas it would not be reasonable or cost effective to introduce frequent feeder services to serve wide and dispersed benefitting catchments. It's also less likely that densities will be as high as in urbanised areas closer to the city.

From a market and product perspective, the introduction of pricing could provide the opportunity to introduce new products such as leased spaces at key Park and Ride facilities to meet targeted demands. Pricing could also provide a user pay contribution toward the cost of capital and operating expenditure.

Currently, the only AT managed Park and Ride facility that is priced is at Matiatia, Waiheke Island.


Policy 13A: Pricing on AT-controlled Park and Ride facilities


The following thresholds will be used by AT when considering the introduction of pricing for Park and Ride facilities managed by AT in Auckland:

  • Price when additional capacity is provided. Introducing pricing in advance of additional capacity being provided will risk impacting on overall public transport patronage.
  • A case-by-case assessment will be undertaken to determine the number of bays to be priced if a decision is made to introduce pricing.
  • Introduce pricing once demand consistently exceeds the 85% occupancy threshold capacity during the morning peak and viable alternative options for accessing the stations are in place, such as frequent bus feeders and good cycling parking, walking connections.
  • Link pricing to the HOP card facility to ensure customer convenience and that Park and Ride facilities are only used by public transport riders. Stage 1 could be applied by using the HOP account or card to gain entry into a park and ride facility. Stage 2 would entail configuring the HOP account or card to meet pricing requirements and installation of equipment.
  • It is proposed that even if pricing is introduced a tiered pricing model (ranging from free to premium, based on space utility) be implemented. Free parking would still be available for commuters at all times including weekends.
  • On street parking spill-over around Park and Ride sites will be actively managed once the 85% threshold is reached or complaints are received.

Once pricing has been introduced, prices may be adjusted either up or down in response to the occupancy surveys undertaken. Parking surveys will measure the parking demand at different times of the day. Surveys will be carried out depending on how variable the demand is at each Park and Ride site. Prices will only be adjusted if warranted by changes in demand with any price adjustment clearly communicated in advance to customers. Price adjustment will be in accordance with the principles of AT’s price adjustment policy.

Pricing at car park buildings/ shopping centres/ other sites

There is evidence is show that commuters are choosing to drive to parking stations such as New Lynn,  pay for all-day parking of around $5 to access stations and terminals. The trend toward this behaviour will be influenced by the availability of well-located parking stations, walkable access to public transport stations and terminals, ease of getting to the parking stations by car, availability of spaces and price.

As part of the Park and Ride programme AT has identified opportunities to potentially negotiate the use of under- utilised parking stations at a number of shopping centres across the city. The location of these centres has been assessed and is considered to be able to meet the park and ride principles. In some of these centres long stay parking is already available to the public as well as for staff for around $5 a day.


Policy 13B: Pricing on shopping centres/car parking buildings/other sites


AT will advance discussions with owners of underutilised parking facilities to negotiate provision of park and ride bays. The price of the Park and Ride bays will be determined by the lease arrangement.


Policy 13C: Commercial opportunities


AT will investigate opportunities for the delivery of new Park and Ride facilities through commercial proposals. These would include at-grade, multi storey, and mixed-use facilities.  Where Park and Ride sites aren't managed by AT the price for parking will be determined by the operator.

Where Park and Ride sites are managed by AT, the pricing policy will apply and may need to be provided through private sector and commercial arrangements.

For more information

Contact Auckland Transport